Liber Novus



Sonu Shamdasani :"Liber Novus"

pp. 193-221


"Liber Primus"

pp. 227-255


"Liber Secundus"

pp. 257-330


"Liber Tertius"

pp. 331-359


"Appendix A"

pp. 361-364


"Appendix B"

pp. 365-369


"Appendix C"

pp. 370-371

[pp. 1-191 (foll. i-vi) are a facsimile of the manuscript]


0.A (pp. 194-202a): "The Cultural Moment".

p. 194b C. G. Jung’s childhood

"Jung was born in Kesswil, on lake Constance, in 1875. He family moved to Laufen by the Rhine Falls when he was six months old. ... Toward the end of his life, Jung wrote a memoir entitled "From the Earliest Experiences of My Life," which was subsequently included in Memories, Dreams, Reflections in a heavily edited form. Jung narrated ... significant childhood dreams". [fn. 6 : "see my Jung Stripped Bare by His Biographers, Even (London, Karnac, 2004), ch. I".]

p. 194b a dream,and a contemplation, by C. G. Jung during his childhood

"In the first dream, he found himself in a meadow with a stone-lined hole in the ground. Finding some stairs, he descended into it ... . Here there was ... a tree trunk

{In the 1001 Nights, there is found by the direction of an Iranian mage, in a subterranean area reached by descending stairs, a tree bearing jewel-fruits.}

of skin and flesh, with an eye on the top.

{Also in the 1001 Nights (as likewise in the Popol Vuh), there are trees having human heads as fruits.}

He then heard his mother’s voice exclaim that this was the "man-eater.""

{There are indeed various species of carnivorous plants.}

"when Jung was twelve, he was traversing the Mu:nsterplatz in Basel ... . He then ... let himself contemplate it, and saw God on his throne".

pp. 195-6 s C. G. Jung’s interest in spiritualism

p. 195a

"Spiritualism particularly interested him, as the spiritualists ... use scientific means to explore the supernatural, and prove the immortality of the soul. ...

p. 195b

Through spiritualism, the cultivation of trances – with the attendant phenomena of trance speech, glossolalia, automatic writing, and crystal vision – became widespread. The phenomena of spiritualism attracted the interests of leading scientists such as Crookes, Zollner, and Wallace. ... During his university days in Basel, Jung and his fellow students took part in se’ances. In 1896, they engaged in along series of sittings with his cousin Helene Preiswerk, who appeared to have mediumistic abilities. Jung found that during the trances she would become {possessed by} different personalities {of spirits} ... . Dead relatives appeared, and she {her spirit-possessed persona} became completely transformed into these figures. She unfolded stories of her previous incarnations and articulated a mystical cosmology, represented in a mandala. ...

Jung’s medical dissertation focused on ... spiritualistic phenomena, in the form of an analysis of his se’ances with Helene Preiswerk."

"the work of Flournoy, Frederick Myers, and William James ... argued that ... spiritualistic experiences were valid ... . Through them, ...

p. 196a

the methods used by the mediums – such as automatic writing, trance speech, and crystal vision – were appropriated by the psychologists, and became prominent experimental research tools.. In psychotherapy, Pierre Janet and Morton Prince used automatic writing and crystal gazing ... . [fn. 16 : "Morton Prince, Clinical and Experimental Studies ... (Cambridge, MA : Sci-Art, 1929)."]


Automatic writing brought to light subpersonalities, and enabled dialogues with them to be held. ...

{Actually, these possessing-spirits function as suprapersonalities, inasmch as they impose their will upon the body of the person whom they possess.}


Jung’s work was closely modeled on Flournoy’s From India to the Planet Mars ... . Jung’s dissertation also indicates the manner in which he was utilizing automatic writing ... . ...

Jung ... presented hypnotic demonstrations."

pp. 196-7 persons influencing C. G. Jung

p. 196b

"in an unpublished article written in the 1930s, "The schism in the Freudian school," he wrote :

"I in no way ... stem from Freud. ... The teachers that influenced me above all are Bleuler, Pierre Janet, and The’odore Flournoy."

Freud and Jung clearly came from quite different intellectual traditions ... . ...

With the lead of Bleuler and Jung, the Burgho:lzli became the center of the psychoanalytic movement".

p. 197a

"In 1908, Jung bought some land by the shore of Lake Zu:rich in Ku:snacht and had a house built, where he was to live for the rest of his life."

p. 197a "two kinds of thinking"

"Taking his cue from William James, Jung contrasted directed thinking and fantasy thinking. The former was verbal and logical, while the latter was passive, associative, and imagistic.

{Actually, these two kinds of thinking do not necessarily contrast, but may overlap or even co-incide. Directed-thinking may involve fantasy (as it often must in artistic creativity), and fantasy-thinking may lead to directed-thinking (as is often the case with constructing socio-oikonomic outopiai). To keep these two kind of thinking rigidly separate would lead to a sterile and unproductive existence.}

The former was exemplified by science and the latter by mythology."

{Mythology is (as well-exemplified in the Fables of Aisopos) largely a matter of moralistic tales shewing the consequences of ethically inappropriate behaviours. Sometimes, as in the tragical epics of Hellenic (or, for that matter, of the Itihasa-s), political satire is involved, as therein calamitous consequences of greed and ill-will on the part of aristokratic ruling-families are exposed.}

{Because royal and ploutokratic ruling-families dislike having the likely future results of their persistent greed and ill-will exposed by tragic epics, therefore they endeavour to obscure and obfuscate the socio-oikonomic significance of mythology by so degrading its value that it will not be serious scrutinized for this purpose by students of public ethics.}

p. 197a alleged lack of directed thinking in "the ancients"

"Jung claimed that the ancients lacked a capacity for directed thinking, which was a modern acquisition."

{So, according to C. G. Jung, such antient Hellenic authors as Aristoteles and Eukleides "lacked a capacity for directed thinking"? Was C. G. Jung insane?}

{This sort of absurdity of Jung’s hath more recently been restated in an even more extreme and praeposterous fashion by Julian Jaynes, a thoroughly disreputable writer.}

p. 197a alleged childishness of "primitives"

"Jung reiterated the anthropological equation of the prehistoric, the primitive, and the child."

{The "anthropologists" to whom Jung was referring here were the paid hirelings of the British Empire’s (and likewise of the German Empire’s) colonial administration, which fabricated this fiction with the intention of applying it as an excuse for maltreating (often mass-murdering) so-called "primitive" indigenous Africans and other subjugated peoples throughout their own rapacious, exploitative empire.}

p. 197b function of dreams

"In a series of articles from 1912, Jung’s friend and colleague Alphonse Maeder argued that dreams had a function other than that of wish fulfillment, which was

a balancing or compensatory function. Dreams were attempts to solve the individual’s moral conflicts. As such, they did not merely point to the past, but also prepared the way for the future. ...

{This is a valid and astute explanation. It may be added that without resolving one’s own internal ethical dilemmata by dreaming them, one would surely die from internal mental stress. Also (and this point is missed by Jung and his ilk), the dreams themselves are most likely to be manufactured, for the sake of the humans involved, by deities -- the dreams’ adequacy and perfection are beyond the means of mortal humans to excogitate.}

Jung ... adopted Maeder’s positions."

p. 198a dream in mid-1912

"Someone says, "that is one who cannot die. He died already 30-40 years ago, but has not managed to decompose." ... Here ... came, a knight ..., clad in yellowish armor. ... He has continued to exist from the 12th century and daily between 12 and 1 o’clock midday he takes the same route."

p. 198 C. G. Jung’s dream in late Dec 1912

p. 198a

p. 198b

dream : "we were sitting at a round table, whose top was a marvelous dark green stone. Suddenly a gull or dove flew in ... . ... She said the following to me : "Only in the first hour of the night can I become human, while the male dove is busy with the twelve dead.""

"he thought of the story of the Tabula smaragadina (emerald tablet), the twelve apostles". [fn. 39 : "At first he thought ... the twelve days before Christmas {i.e., the 12 days of Saturnalia, perhaps alluding to the book of that title by Makrobios} ... (Meetings with Jung : Conversations recorded by E. A. Bennet during the Years 1946-1961 [London : Anchor Press, 1982 ...], p. 93)."]

pp. 198-9, 201 praemonitions of the Great War

p. 198b

Oct 1913 : "on a train journey to Schaffhausen, Jung experienced a waking vision of Europe being devastated by a catastrophic flood, which [dream] was repeated two weeks later, on the same journey. ... After this experience, Jung feared that he would go mad."

p. 199a

"in 1912, Wassily Kandinsky wrote of a coming universal catastrophe.

From 1912 to 1914, Ludwig Meidner painted a series of works known as the apocalyptic landscapes, with scenes of destroyed cities ... . ... In 1899, the famous American medium Leonora Piper predicted that in the coming century there would be a terrible war in different parts of the world that would ... reveal the truths of spiritualism. In 1918, Arthur Conan Doyle, the spiritualist and author of the Sherlock Holmes stories, viewed this as having been prophetic." [fn. 47 : "Arthur Conan Doyle, The New Revelation and the Vital Message (London : Psychic Press, 1918), p. 9."]

p. 201b

"Years later, he said to Mircea Eliade :

[in 1914] ... I kept thinking to myself : "... Very Likely I’ll go mad ... ." On July 31st ..., I learned ... that war had broken out. Finally I understood. ... I understood ... my dreams and visions"". [p. 202, fn. 87 : "C. G. Jung Speaking : Interviews and Encounters, eds. William McGuire and R. F. C. Hull (Bollingen Series, Princeton : Princeton University Press, 1977), pp. 233-34."]

p. 199b alleged "anima"

"St. Augustine wrote is Soliloquies, which presented an extended dialogue. They commenced ... :

... there suddenly spoke to me – what was it? ... someone else, inside or outside me? ...""

{Was Augustine thus entirely unaware of the existence of the guardian-angel?}

" "Then a voice said to me, "... art." ... what I was writing was art." [Analytical Psychology, p. 42] ...

{p. 206b : This voice received confirmation when [Memories, p. 220] "this woman, that is Moltzer, argued that "the fantasies stemming from the unconscious possessed artistic worth and should be considered art.""}

He thought to himself that his voice was "the soul in the primitive sense," which he called the anima (the Latin word for soul)." {/Anima/ is ‘air’ or ‘breath’ in Latin; the word for ‘soul’ is /alma/.}

{Apparently, Jung was unaware that according to Zaratustrian lore, one’s guardian-angel is always of opposite gendre to one’s own. One’s guardian-angel is different from one’s "soul", which latter is a term designating one’s own (rather than one’s guardian-angel’s) non-material immortality.} {In the "primitive sense" (i.e., in the shamanic terminology) the guardian-angel is otherwise known as the "spirit-guide".}

p. 200a automatic-writing

"Jung had had extensive experience studying mediums in trance states ..., and had conduced experiments with automatic writing."

"Swedenborg also engaged in "spirit writing." In his spiritual diary ... :

... JAN. 1748. – Spirits ... have sometimes, and indeed often, directed my hand when writing, as though it were quite their own; so that they thought it was not I, but themselves writing." [fn. 63 : "William White ... Swedenborg : His Life and Writings, vol. I (London : Bath, 1867), pp. 293-294."]

"In 1912, Ludwig Staudenmeier (1865-1933) ... published a work entitled Magic as an Experimental Science. Staudenmeier had embarked ... in 1901, ... with automatic writing. A series of characters {divine entities} appeared, and he found that he no longer needed to write to conduct dialogues with them. [fn. 65 : "Staudenmeier, De Magie als experimentelle Naturwissenschaft (Leipzig : Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, 1912). p. 19"] ... He argued that the key to understanding magic lay in ... the "under consciousness" (Unterbewusstsein)".

p. 200b C. G. Jung’s dream {of "the waters which were above the firmament" (B-Re>s^it 1:7); where "firmament" (‘pottery’ in Ugaritic) = Jung’s "clods" (instead of potsherds)}

dream [Memories, p. 207] : "There was a blue sky, like the sea, covered not by clouds but by flat brown clods of earth. It looked as if the clods were breaking apart and the blue water of the sea were becoming visible between them. But the water was the blue sky.

{Here, "clods" = "buffalo chips" (viz., buffalo’s turds) in the myths (from the tribes of the North American Great Plains) of the observing of the Earth below from the vantage-point of the divine Sky-world; and consequent coming-down of to Earth of denizens of the Sky-world. [With these turds, cf. supra, p. 194b : "God on his throne unleashing an almighty turd".]}

Suddenly there appeared ... a winged being sailing across the sky. ... it was an old man with the horns of a bull. He held a bunch of four keys ... . He had the wings of a kingfisher with its characteristic colors.

{The Iranian god Zrvan Akarana (‘Time Unlimited’) "had his hands ... upon ... a key in each, four wings fastened on the shoulders, two pointing upwards, two downwards." (HD, p. 226)}

... I did not understand this dream image".

{When the husband of Alkuone (the Kingfisher-bird) died at sea, goddess Hera notified "Hypnos, who instructed Morpheus, the God of Dreams, to appear in the poor woman’s dreams" ("MH", based on OM 11:585sq).

HD = Paul Carus : The History of the Devil. Open Court, 1900.

"MH" =

OM = Ovidius : Metamorphoses.

201a Association for Analytical Psychology

[in 1914] "On July 10, the Zu:rich Psychoanalytical Society voted ... to leave the International Psychoanalytic Association. ... The group was renamed the Association for Analytical Psychology."

p. 201b a basic difference between Jung’s Analytical Psychology and Freud’s Psycho-analysis

"he contrasted Freud’s analytic-reductive method, based on causality {viz., on the past only}, with the constructive method of the Zu:rich school. The shortcoming of the former was that ... it dealt with only half the picture, and failed to grasp the living meaning of phenomena. ... . ... life could not be understood merely retrospectively. Hence the constructive aspect asked,

"how, out of this present psyche, a bridge can be built into its own future."" ["On Psychological Understanding", Collected Works 3, @ 399]

{cf. Latin /ponti-fec-/ ‘bridge-maker’}

p. 201b reprieved (by political events) from being pronounced insane

[quoted from :- William McGuire & R. F. C. Hull (edd.) : C. G. Jung Speaking. Princeton U Pr, 1977. pp. 233-4] "I became worried, wondering if I was not on the way to "doing a schizophrenia," as we said in the language of those days. ... I kept saying to myself : "... Very likely I’ll go mad ... ." ... On July 31st ..., I learned from the newspapers that war had broken out. ... And when I disembarked in Holland on the next day, nobody was happier than I. Now I was sure that no schizophrenia was threatening me.

{He reckoned that it was the distraction of official society by the advent of the Great War, that reprieved him and his views, doctrines, and practices from being officially noticed and officially pronounced mad (schizophrenic). That is why he became "happier" at news of the outbreak of the Great War. (His religious and political radicalism might have caused him to be declared an insanely dangerous revolutionist, had it not been for the outbreak of a worldwide war. He did not explain this overtly because he continued to dread that any open mention of his secret radicalism could lead to his being immediately committed to a madhouse.)}

I understood that my dreams and my visions came to me from the subsoil of the collective unconscious."

{Inasmuch as "the collective unconscious" is a jargon term of his for the world of protective deities, he meant that the deities had sent him divine dreams and supernatural visions (of the sorts which could have gotten him committed to a madhouse during ordinary peacetime) only because they (those deities) were well-aware that an impending worldwide war was foreordained by fate; and that such deities knew well that during such a war the political and civil authorities would be too distracted to notice his deviances from orthodoxy.}

p. 202a C. G. Jung’s twelve praecognitive visions and dreams (all supposedly praefigurative of the forthcoming Great War)





Oct 1913

"Repeated vision of flood and death of thousands, and the voice that said that this will become real."


Autumn 1913

"Vision of the sea of blood covering the northern lands."


Dec 1913

"Image of a dead hero and the slaying of Siegfried".


Dec 1913

"Image of the foot of a giant stepping on a city".


Jan 1914

"Image of a sea of blood and a procession of dead multitudes."


Jan 1914

"His soul comes up from the depths and asks him if he will accept war and destruction. She shows him images of destruction, military weapons, human remains, sunken ships, destroyed states".


May 1914

"A voice says that the sacrificed will fall left and right."


Jun-Jul 1914

"Thrice-repeated dream of being in a foreign land and having to return quickly by ship, and the descent of the icy cold."

fn. 91 : "See below, pp. 198-9, 231, 241, 252, 273, 305, 335."


C. G. Jung (edited by Sonu Shamdasani; translated from the German by Mark Kyburz, John Peck, & Sonu Shamdasani) : The Red Book : Liber Novus. PHILEMON SER, Foundation of the Works of C. G. Jung, Zu:rich. W. W. Norton & Co. Mondadori Printing, Verona.