Dream Cultures5-6. "Amerindia".


pp. 87-103 – 5. Barbara Tedlock : "Sharing and Interpreting Dreams in Amerindian Nations".

p. 88 Rara`muri (Tarahumara) dreamings as functions of souls (Merrill 1988:104-11)

[non-mutual dreaming] "people feel drowsy when their souls feel drowsy and ... they fall asleep when their souls fall asleep inside their bodies. Dreaming occurs when the largest soul arises and leaves the body, then again when it returns to the body."

[mutual-dreaming / co-dreaming] "dreaming takes place only when one or more large souls leave the body and encounter other souls during their wanderings."

Merrill 1988 = William Merrill : Rara`muri Souls. Washington (DC).

pp. 88-9 Zun~i dreamings as vagaries

p. 88

"dreaming is accomplished by a segment of a person’s self that travels outside the body and has experiences in past, distant, or future times. ... . ... there ... part of the dreamer is travelling. ... one’s life essence or breath

p. 89

is wandering. ...

"Valuable" Zunis, ... medicine society members and rain priests have intimate knowledge of various altered states of consciousness, whether medicine knowledge of what they say is passed through to the other side" or priestly knowledge of "seeing ahead." They have little difficulty in ... trancing (including trances induced by jimsonweed ingestion), and possession trancing (behaving like bears during medicine society performances)".

p. 89 K>ic^e> dreaming

"Dreaming, for shamans and lay persons alike, is a nightly struggle between the dreamer’s actively engaged free soul, which ought to be in search of knowledge, and the free souls of the deities and ancestors who have important messages concerning the future but seldom say exactly what they mean. As one K>iche> expressed it, "Dreams want to win and not be remembered clearly. Instead, you must fight in order to win them, to remember what they advise." ...

The art of learning to see, hear, and interpret the uncanny in dreams is taught during formal apprenticeship."

p. 91 examples of dreams which are interpreted in accordance with a myth

"Among the Kagwahiv of the Brazilian Amazon,

an incestuous sexual dream

predicts killing a tapir

because a tapir was an adulterous lover in an important myth.

Kracke 1992:33

For the Hupdu Maku

to dream of a smoked-out tapir

indicates that a kinsman will die

because of a myth in which a man lures his brother-in-law into an armadillo’s hole and tries to kill him there. ...

Reid 1978:20

Among the Lacandon Maya of Chiapas, Mexico,

to dream of maggots

indicates beans,

since the Lord of Death, Kisin, daily eats maggots from dead bodies as his beans."

Bruce 1979:322, 324-5

Kracke 1992 = Waud Kracke : "Myths in Dreams ... : an Amazonian contribution". In :- Barbara Tedlock (ed.) : Dreaming : Anthropological and Psychological Interpretations. Santa Fe` (NM). pp. 31-54.

Reid 1978 = Howard Reid : "Dreams and Their Interpretations among the Hupdu Maku Indians of Brazil". CAMBRIDGE ANTHROPOLOGY 4:1-28.

Bruce 1979 = Robert D. Bruce : Lacandon Dream Symbolism. Mexico.

p. 94 Kwakiutl lucid dreaming is induced by rite involving quartz

"he hid the crystal in the woods and then gave a feast. After the guests had left he lay down and ... he became aware that he was asleep. A man came to him, ... and said, "... you have received your treasure, the quartz crystal from me." Upon awakening ... the unknown man ... became his guardian spirit and trained him as a shaman."

{this is somewhat similar to California Indian dreams about pebbles located at particular places later sought out by the dreamer in order to gain powers to attract game-animals in hunting}

cf. infra, p. 114 "Mythic Dreams and Double Voicing" [instance of quartz in Kwakiutl myth of seal-people] : "The local chief, whose name is Seal Face and who has a round quartz crystal on the nape of his neck ..."

pp. 95-96 falling to sleep within a dream, with consequent false-awakening into another dream-level




[Kwakiutl dream (Boas 1930)] " "... traveling canoe. Then I stopped paddling. In my dream we were drifting about on the water. Then it became night and I went to sleep." When he awoke [in the dream] it was still foggy ... . "Then it cleared up and I awoke."" {Fog is a variant on the darkness so frequent in shamanic dreams.}


[dreams by a Cahuilla shamaness (Modesto & Mount 1980)] "I dreamed to the 13th level. ... the way you do that is by remembering to tell yourself to go to sleep in your 1st level ordinary dream. You consciously tell yourself to lay down and go to sleep.

Then you dream a second dream. This is the 2nd level and the prerequisite for real Dreaming. ...

On the 3rd level you learn and see unusual things, not of this world. The hills and terrain are different. ... Once before I knew how to dream and think simultaneously, I was dreaming on the 3rd level and wondering how I was going to return. Suddenly a giant bird


appeared, like a pelican; it came along and I grabbed its neck. We flew up in the sky, I saw the earth burning below {this would be a witnessing of the world-fire common to California Indian mythologies} and I sort of came out of it into the 2nd level of dream. It’s really hard to come out of ... higher levels."

Boas 1930 = Franz Boas : Religion of the Kwakiutl Indians. NY.

Modesto & Mount 1980 = Ruby Modesto & Guy Mount : Not for innocent Ears. Arcata.

p. 95 Iuuit shamanizing (Rasmussen 1931:24-6)

"a man ... shamanized by wandering about half-naked in a snowstorm until he achieved a vision which he related, in the form of nearly incomprehensible riddles, to his friends and neighbors. His shrill falsetto oracular utterances, which were punctuated by animal howls and screeches, were interpreted by an old woman who had a great deal of experience in shamanizing."

Rasmussen 1931 = Knud J. V. Rasmussen : The Netsilik Eskimos. Copenhagen.

p. 96 usefulness of dreams

(Ridington 1988) "Among the Dunne-za or Beaver Indians of British Columbia and Alberta, ... dreamers ..., both male and female, ... are able to leave their bodies and fly like swans along a trail of songs into the sky, to visit the deceased and return with new knowledge and songs to their bodies here on earth.

(Geertz & Lomatuway>ma 1987:130)) At Hopi and Zuni pueblos there are a number of powerful medicine women who act with volition in their dreams to seek herbal and spiritual remedies.

(Maybury-Lewis 1974:287) Among the Xavante, individual actively concentrate on particular spirits they wish to commune with, who eventually appear in a dream. Members of one Xavante patrilineage use special cylinders of polished wood to communicate with their dead; a lineage leader hangs the cylinder over the grave of the dead kinsman, or over his own sleeping mat, and that evening he himself either visits his kinsman in his dreams or else he receives a visitation from his dead kin."

Ridington 1988 = Robin Ridington : Trail to Heaven. Vancouver (BC).

Geertz & Lomatuway>ma 1987 = Armin W. Geertz & Michael Lomatuway>ma : Children of Cottonwood : Piety and Ceremonialism in Hopi Indian Puppetry. Lincoln (NE).

Maybury-Lewis 1974 = David Maybury-Lewis : Akwe-Shavante Society. NY.

pp. 96-97 seeing one own dead body (separate from one’s self) during dreaming

p. 96

[Blackfeet (Lincoln 1932:68)] "he entered into his previous night’s dream and saw ... where he had slept, his own dead body, and the spirits of many other dead people sitting in grave boxes. ... Now the dead danced around, and "I saw my own dead body." So, just as the dead left their corpses in their graves, the dreamer now leaves his own sleeping body. "Then one of the dead took the baby and swung it around three times, then threw it at my body. My body dodged. Each of the dead tried to hit

{This is more similar to gCod, and to experiences by souls of the dead (who may see their own corpse), than it is to astral-projection (wherein one may witness one’s one living body living asleep). Is the power to handle red-hot objects always derived from astral-projection?}

p. 97

my body with the baby, but none succeeded." ... Now one of the dead said, ... "My son, we will give you ... power to cure cramps and rheumatism. ... also power to pick up red-hot stones and fire.""

Lincoln 1932 = Jackson Stewart Lincoln : Indian Dreams. MA thesis, U of CA at Berkeley.

pp. 97-8 instances of lucid-dreaming (awareness of being asleep, during a dream)




[Tzotzil "out-of-body experience" during lucid-dreaming (Laughlin 1976:163)] A woman "Tzotzil Mayan weaver and flower vender living in Zinacanta`n, Chiapas, Mexico, reported astral flight during lucidity. ... At this point in her dream ... "There I climbed over the fence ... next to a live oak and flew off. ... When I landed far away I was asked by someone why I had ... flown off ... ." At this point she ... "woke up," she says, but she notes that she was actually still dreaming {false-awakening} ... . ... "It didn’t seem as if it were in my dreams," she says."


[Shoshone lucid-dreaming] "As a young man, the Shoshone Sun Dance Chief ... went ... to ... a mountaintop that had an important cave. ... "On the third day, I heard a bell, drum beat, singing, way down deep in the cave. It was all dark, but I kept hearing this bell ringing and a drumbeat, way back there, and


wondered what it was." He became aware that he was dreaming when ... a tiny man appeared before him. "He came from the middle of the mountain, where it was dark." His name was Seven Arrows, and he said, "... I see you are sincere. ... I would like to take you back in here, show you some things." ... [the young man] went deeper into the cave with the man. "We came to a place where some men were throwing a lance at a rolling hoop; it was a gambling game. Then we came into another big cavern, ... and we went on until we came to a hand game." This guide told him, "... Now that you have seen that, let’s go on further." They went deeper into the hill and heard a drum beating. "As we came closer we saw a tipi that was rolled halfway up, to let in air, and we saw an Indian doctoring session going on. ..." At this point in the narrative it becomes clear that he is being selected to become an apprentice shaman. Seven Arrows, who will be his spirit guide, says, "I know you are sincere and will use your powers only for what is good. ... You should not use what I am going to give you to do any of the other gambling things that you saw back there. Go back home now, and I will tell you later what things I want you to work with. You will be able to help people to get well when they are sick. ..." [The shaman] says that while Seven Arrows was leading him back to the entrance of the cave, "I realized that there was a solid stone wall in front of us. As we reached it, we walked right through the wall {walking through walls being a typical feature in descriptions of out-of-body experiences}, and I saw my body {again, typical of out-of-body experiences} lying there on the ground. I realized then that my vision had not been in the physical world. When I reached my body, I felt as though I was lying down on top of myself, and then I was awake."" {This is the typical re-entry into one’s material body, ending each episode of out-of-body experience.}

Laughlin 1976 = Robert M. Laughlin : Of Wonders Wild and New : Dreams from Zinacantan. Washington (DC).

p. 99 a black region in the sky, and a beam of light [as experienced by a woman-participant a during a Cree shamanic retreat at "Dreamer’s Rock" in Ontario (Smith 1995:31-2)]

" "A hole in the sky appeared and started to form a circle."

{This (a black patch in the sky) is a common experience actuated by yoga (according to the upa-puran.a).}

A strange beam of light came down upon them, "I could see the sparkles of light around me. I knew the spirits were there. I knew I had touched another level of existence.""

Smith 1995 = Theresa S. Smith : The Island of Anishnaabeg : Thunderers and Water Monsters in the Traditional Ojibwe Life-World. Moscow (ID).

p. 99 a sky-net [as witnessed in a dream of false-awakening by the father of an Abenaki informant (Hedges 1992:12)]

"an Eastern Abenaki sculptor and storyteller from Quebec ... shares one of his father’s favorite lucid dreams. His father begins his account by saying, "In my dream, I awakened." He noted the position of his body, and what he saw when he turned on his side was "the morning sun shining through a dew-covered spider web. ... So beautiful it was! It was filled with sparkling color, a million tiny lights in a hand’s breadth." At this point he noticed that "a black and yellow spider was busy repairing a tear in the web from an insect that got away." When he noticed the spider its stopped weaving and talked to the dreamer in "a tiny little voice," saying, "This is a Dream Net, it only lets good dreams through. This hole was left by the dream you are dreaming now!""

Hedges 1992 = Ken Hedges : Welcome the Caribou Man. San Diego.

p. 99 dream-catcher nets

On the Great Plains, "protective web designs are used on baby hoods and cradles to prevent bad dreams from penetrating the baby’s open fontanel. Small webbed bead dangles, strung on sinew between rawhide thongs, are hung from the top back of the hood, and geometric web designs are woven into amulets tied to the top of the cradle boards or sewn directly onto hide cradle boards.

Among Northeastern nations "dream nets," also known as "dream catchers," are constructed from a supple willow or red dogwood branch bent into a circle, then woven with plant materials or sinew into a spiraling orb. Several tiny glass beads or semiprecious stones – garnet turquoise, rose quartz, or malachite – are then attached to the web. Finally a larger bead and a feather from a wild turkey, cardinal, or bluebird are tied to the center of the web, representing a garden spider hanging suspended head downward from the center of the web. Now the dream catcher, which is lashed to the top of an infant’s cradleboard, can filter all dreams approaching the baby and only let the good ones flow through the net’s center opening into the fontanel and thus the consciousness of the baby."


pp. 104-120 – 6. Dennis Tedlock : "Mythic Dreams and Double Voicing".

p. 106 distinction between dream-lucidity and dream-quasi-lucidity

A dreamer’s true dream-lucidity is "a step beyond what dream researchers call quasi-lucidity, in which he could be aware that he is not dreaming and yet remains a nonparticipant."

pp. 106-8 narrative-myth of mouse-goddess shewing to the dreamer a view of the earth from the sky-dome



exposition of the myth


[Dena>ina of the Cook Inlet in Alaska (Kari 1994:116-7)] " "At night when the man went to bed, ... the mouse ran all over him.

{"The Chief Mouse always started the dance by singing ... 'Mice-winking-their-eyes.' " (ONT, p. 341)}


Then when he finally went to sleep, the man had a dream. ...

{"this village has dreamt"("vhd") in Elk's Skull.}


He dreamed about an open country : no ridges, no mountains, no trees as far as he could see. ...

{Divine worlds are often described as devoid of mountains, as, e.g., the Pure Land Sukhavati.}


And there was a lady seated in front of him there. ... I know you," the woman says to the dreamer. ... "There were people there, but their faces were made differently than {from} human faces." ...


The woman speaks to him .... : "The way ... now is bad. You have ... the animals’ bones ... thrown ... where the people walk on them." ... To show his the results ...,"she gestured, and the place turned into a different country. It was populated by horribly disfigured animals. ..." ...


The dreamer now sees that the woman and himself "were at a land above the human land, which was below them to the east. And all kinds of people were

{"the sky [manxira] ... seemed to burst" ("ES--i").}


coming up from the lower country, and they didn’t have any clothes on. When they arrived, they put on clothes, and when they did, they turned back into all kinds of animals again. .... The Campfire People," meaning human beings in the lower land, "take good care of us. They take our clothes for their use, and if the human treat us with respect, we come back here in good shape to turn into animals again," which is to say that


the animal spirits, which have human form, put on animal clothes again. "We will be in good shape if humans put our bones into the water or burn them in the fire. ...

[p. 117 (Yana use of that Rolling-Skull myth for hunters’ rite :) "when wildcats have animal bodies and hunters burn their bones, their spirits will be able to put on wildcat clothes again."]


As she was talking to him, the woman was standing behind him, ... when he turned to look at her, he saw a great big mouse sitting there. And the man ... woke up."

{cf. "the Mouse Woman, the traditional guide and advisor of those who travel from the human world to the nonhuman realms of Haida myth." ("SHGw")}

Kari 1994 = James Kari : "Six Selections from Peter Kalifornsky’s A Dena>ina Legacy". In :- Brian Swann (ed.) : Coming to Light. NY. pp. 110-23.

ONT = Walter McClintock : The Old North Trail; OR, Life, Legends and Religion of the Blackfeet Indians. London: Macmillan & Co, 1910. http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/pla/ont/ont28.htm

"vhd" = "this village has dreamt" http://hotcakencyclopedia.com/ho.ElksSkull.html#Anchor-53555

"ES--i" = "Elk's Skull -- interlinear of Oliver LaMère" http://hotcakencyclopedia.com/ho.HTS.ElksSkull.html

"SHGw" = "The Spirit of Haida Gwaii" http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/washington/offices-bureaux/haida.aspx?lang=eng

pp. 111-3 other dreams within myths




[Arikara myth of abduction of woman by Blackbear-man (Parks 1991:270-5)] In his dream, the husband of a woman who had disappeared was told by "the spirit of the elk" to use "an elk whistle, one that imitates the sound of an elk."


[Mandan myth of dream of Corn-Silk Maiden (Bowers 1950:319-23)] Too-long-unmarried Corn-Silk Maiden feigned being asleep while being carried off to dream-lodge of Owl Woman : "Corn Silk leaves this dream lodge and slowly finds her way back on her own, acquiring various power from animal spirits along the way." "it is her second awakening, when Owl Woman fixes breakfast for her, that ... is the one that is describes as false."


[sequel to myth of dream of Corn-Silk Maiden : myth of origin of the "buffalo dance" ritual] "People start disappearing from the village each night." A young man vision-quaester, asleep on a hilltop, saw in his "dream" 12 "buffalo dancers" : " "Each had a flat board about two feet long with hoofs, lungs, and a heart tied to the handle. ... They stopped at the foot of the hill near the young man, circled around, and sang their song." Of course, he remembers what he sees and hears, later instituting a dance that marks the end of the disappearances."

Parks 1991 = Douglas R. Parks : Traditional Narratives of the Arikara Indians. Vol. 3 : "Translations". Lincoln (NE).

Bowers 1950 = Alfred W. Bowers : Mandan Social and Ceremonial Organization. Chicago.

pp. 113-5 another myth, not entailing dreams (but somehow reminiscent of dreaming, according to Tedlock)




[Kwakiutl (Berman 1994)] Day Hunter was hunting in "a cave used by harbor seals, ... and the only way a hunter can get inside is through a hole in the ceiling."


After being injured in a way that would sound dream-like ("his intestines were scattered over the rocks. But his mind remained steady."),


he was healed by Seal Face with the "water-of-life".

Berman 1994 = Judith Berman : "Night Hunter and Day Hunter". In :- Brian Swann (ed.) : Coming to Light. NY. pp. 250-72.

p. 116 "Cheshire Cat" type of myth

[Yana myth of Rolling Skull (Luthin 1994:728-36)] Wildcat-man as husband, while "Climbing

a pine tree to knock down the cones ... to his wife",

[cf. p. 97 dream by a woman : "My pine arrived safely. ... I made a tiny corral out of my pine."]

remembered his dream : "with his inner voice he says, "I dreamed during the night ... about tearing myself down into pieces. I threw down my shoulder, I threw down my other shoulder, I threw down my thigh, I threw down my other thigh. ... I dreamed about throwing down my backbone. I dreamed that I ran all over as nothing but my skull. ..." ...

"Blood was dripping down from the pitch-pine tree. ... Wildcat hopped around by himself up above, nothing but a skull. ..."

{"The Cheshire Cat is the cat of the Duchess. Alice meets it when she leaves the Duchess house, and finds it in a tree. It constantly grins and can disappear and reappear whenever it likes. Sometimes it disappears and leaves its grin behind." ("ChCChD")}

From this moment on, Wildcat’s ... skull, a human one , comes down ... and then rolls and bounces all over the world with the sound of a high wind, killing everyone who crosses its path.

{"wildcat ... eyes drew nearer and nearer to the ... skull ... and dance! Tiny field mice were singing and dancing in a circle" (OIL, p. 114). [Lakota]}

Finally Coyote, disguised as an old woman, stops it.

{Loki, disguised as an old woman, went to inquire from Frigg about the plants’ oath protecting Baldr (Gylfaginning 49-50).}

This woman is the first person ever to ask Wildcat (or his skull) why he acts the way he does, and for the first time he tells his dream out aloud. ...

{That oath was sworn on account of Baldr’s foreboding dream.}

She then claims she once had a patient with the same problem, and that she "helped him to be a person again." ...

But then she starts ... saying ..., "Next, I put you down in the fire pit.""

{cf., during Baldr’s funeral, "the burning of the ring Draupnir on Baldur‟s breast, mentioned in Skírnismál 21" ("FBM")}

Tedlock 1992 = Barbara Tedlock : "Zuni and Quiche` Dream Sharing and Interpreting". In :- Barbara Tedlock (ed.) : Dreaming : Anthropological and Psychological Interpretations. Santa Fe` (NM). pp. 105-31.

Luthin 1994 = Herbert W. Luthin : "Two Stories from the Yana". In :- Brian Swann (ed.) : Coming to Light. NY. pp.171-36.

"ChCChD" = "Cheshire Cat Character Description" http://www.alice-in-wonderland.net/school/cheshire-cat.html

OIL = Zitkala-S̈a : Old Indian Legends. Boston & London : Ginn & Co, 1901. http://books.google.com/books?id=YpirMKuJTrYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Old+Indian+Legends&ei=ZdhdStKqOaPCM9-YrfwH#v=onepage&q=wildcat&f=false

"FBM" = "Frigg, Baldur’s Mother" http://www.germanicmythology.com/original/earthmother/odinswifebaldursmother.pdf

dumbness & constriction of the throat



Gros Ventre


"MSLl", p. 401 Manawyddan began "to make clasps for the shoes".

GVM&T, p. 68 "He continued to feel about him with his feet."


"MSL", p. 403 Pryderi lingered "on the margin of the fountain".

GVM&T, p. 68 "I must be very close to the river now."

Dream Cultures, p. 116 myth of Wildcat-man : "This story comes from a culture in which the best way to prevent a bad dream from coming true it to tell it to other people [for this practice in other tribes, vide : Tedlock 1992:118], but

"MSL", p. 403 "chains hanging from the air, to which he saw no end." {According to the Iliad, the world is suspended from heaven by a chain. Cf. the /SiLSiLah/ ‘chain’ of transmission of lore, in <arabian tradition.}

GVM&T, p. 68 " "I am a willow, it said to him." {‘Willow’ is in Latin /SaLix/.}

Wildcat goes on keeping his dream to himself."

"MSLl", p. 403 Pryderi "could not utter a word."


"MSLl", p. 403 "her hands became fast to the bowl, and her feet to the slab".

GVM&T, p. 68 "the others saw him seize her".


"MSLl", p. 408 Having caught the Mouse-queen, Manawyddan "noosed the string around the mouse's neck, and as he was about to draw it up, behold ... ."

GVM&T, p. 72 "He wanted to get to the women inside. At last the hole ... contracted around his neck. The Mice ran out."

"MSLl" = "Manawyddan the Son of Llyr", in :- Lady Charlotte Guest (tr.) : Mabinogion. London : Bernard Quaritch, 1877. http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/mab/mab24.htm

GVM&T = A. L. Kroeber : Gros Ventre Myths and Tales. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, Vol. I, Pt. III. 1907. http://books.google.com/books?id=T5UlrTj9ggQC&pg=PA59&dq=Gros+Ventre+Myths+and+Tales&ei=E81dSoGRD5OCNqTUgZ0H#v=onepage&q=neck&f=false

"Theft of Pinenuts" EV (SWShM) ]

[SV, p. 256] "Cottontail began to play his flute".

{To "play the skin flute" is to ‘masturbate’ ("PSF").} {cf. Norse goddess Frigg, goddess of "female masturbation" ("F?")}

[EV p. 259] "Mouse and Weasel came to the dance, but, after the people had eaten, went away to sleep. Everyone danced the round dance for 5 nights and played the hand game every day. By the time it was all over, they all went to sleep.

{According to the Popol Vuh, the twin-brethren gods "danced the Weasel" ("SCP&C", fn. 11).}

An old woman had been guarding the pine nuts.

{cf. Yana Wildcat-man’s wife, for whom he reaped pinenuts (Dream Cultures, p. 116).}

Mouse and Weasel tried to get the nuts, but they were tied on the top of a high pole and could not be reached. ...

{"mice holding a sun dance in an elk skull" (GVM&T, p. 131, #7).} {Tall poles are a feature of the sun dance.}

Crow and his people took the pine nuts and ran toward the south."

{"Crouched under his [Raven’s] tail is the Mouse Woman" ("SHGw").}

[SV, p. 257] "Woodpecker gave the pine nuts to Crow."

{cf. Woodpecker-god "Picus, who was also called Zeus" (Chronicle of John of Antioch, in Cramer, Anecd. Paris. 2, p. 236 – "DS6")}

[EV, p. 259] Instead of Woodpeckers, there remained merely "woodpecker beaks".

{The living body of Picus’s wife Canens mysteriously "liquified and vanished" ("M14"); except for her song.}

[W, p. 260] "Rotten-legs (Hawk) was the only person left. He had the pine nuts in his leg. ... His leg stunk so bad that they threw it away toward the south."

{cf. "Zeus as the hawk" according to Hesiodos ("JZHF", p. 235)} {Zeus concealed the unborn food (specifically, grape)-god Dionusos in his thigh : "Zeus grabbed from the fire her six-month aborted baby, which he sewed into his thigh." (Apollodoros : Bibliotheke 3:26 – "DM1")}

SV = "Saline Valley", in :- Julian H. Steward : Some Western Shoshoni Myths. BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 136. 1943. http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/ca/wsm/wsm05.htm

"SF" = "playing the skin flute" http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=playing%20the%20skin%20flute

"F?" = "Frigg?" http://www.friggmagazine.com/volumeonearchive/parkerellenfriggquestion.htm

EV = "Elko Valley", in :- Julian H. Steward : Some Western Shoshoni Myths. BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 136. 1943. http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/ca/wsm/wsm07.htm

"SCP&C" = "Scenes of Cognition : Performance and Conquest" http://hemi.nyu.edu/hemi/en/stages-of-conflict/pre-conquest-theatre

W = "Winnemucca", in :- Julian H. Steward : Some Western Shoshoni Myths. BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 136. 1943. http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/ca/wsm/wsm08.htm

"DS6" = "Diodorus Siculus VI" http://www.theoi.com/Text/DiodorusSiculus6.html#4

"M14" = Ovidius : Metamorphoses, lib. 14 http://www.theoi.com/Text/OvidMetamorphoses14.html#5

"JZHF" = Stephanie Nelson : "The Justice of Zeus in Hesiod's Fable of the Hawk and the Nightingale". THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL, Vol. 92, No. 3 (Feb. - Mar., 1997), pp. 235-247. http://www.jstor.org/pss/3298109

DM1" = "Dionysos Myths 1" http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/DionysosMyths.html#Birth


David Shulman & Guy G. Stroumsa (eds.) : Dream Cultures. Oxford U Pr, 1999.