Communing With the Gods

Tabula Contentorum, Pars II





Phainomenology of Dreaming



Cultural Theories of Dreaming



Sociocultural Aspects of Dreaming



Dreaming in Religion



Archetypal Dreaming



Dreaming and the Self



Transpersonal Dreaming



Dream Yoga-s


Cap. 6




Phainomenology of Dreaming


p. 165 1st & foremost

"Dreaming is first and foremost a life-world, a domain of experience (Rycroft 1979:2)."

Rycroft 1979 = Charles Rycroft : The Innocence of Dreams. NY : Pantheon.

p. 166 anthropologist-researchers must consider their own dreaming, initially

"We need ethnographic dream researchers like George Gillespie (1985, 1998b, 1997) who have immersed themselves in their own dream phenomenology before tackling dreaming among polyphasic peoples. ... Phenomenology is fundamentally a method for studying one's own consciousness. It is a method, for instance, that Husserl used to examine his own ... subjectvity in his book The Phenomenology of Internal ... Consciousness (... [1928]) ... . So ... phenomenology here ... is specifically the Husserlian version -- an approach ... useful in anthropology (see ... Jackson 1996)."

Gillespie 1985 = George Gillespie : "From Lucid Dreaming to Dreamless Sleep". ASD NEWSLETTER 2.4:6-10.

Gillespie 1988b = George Gillespie : "Without a Guru : an Account of My Lucid Dreaming". In :- Jayne Gackenbach & Stephen LaBerge (edd.) : Conscious Mind, Sleeping Brain. NY : Plenum, pp. 343-50.

Gillespie 1997 = George Gillespie : "Hypnopompic Imagery and Visual Dream Experience". DREAMING 7.3:187-94.

Jackson 1996 = Michael Jackson : "Introduction : Phenomenology, Radical Empiricism, and Anthropological Critique". In :- Michael Jackson (ed.) : Things as They Are : New Directions in Phenomenological Anthropology. Bloomington : IN Univ Pr. pp. 1-50.

p. 167 "bracketing" of "natural attitude"

"We already know what ... is derived from a lifetime of learning ... . Edmund Husserl called the sum total of all this learning our natural attitude ... . ... Husserl called this holding of prior knowledge in abeyance bracketing. ... By bracketing all our preconceptions we enter what Husserl called

the phenomenological epoche' (... meaning "suspension ..."). What is suspended are all judgements, identifications, conceptions, attitudes, beliefs ... .

{Diogenes Laertius {Lae:rtios} ... say that Arcesilaus {Arkesi-la[w]os} "was the first to hold his judgement in suspension ..." (D.L. IV.32). That is, Arcesilaus is said to have originated the concept of epoche, which was to become basic to Sextus's Pyrrhonism" (ShATh, p. 454).}

What Husserl was ... advocating was ... a S[tate]O[f]C[onsciousness] not unlike the Zen notion of "beginner's mind" (Suzuki 1970).

{"This "suspension" is said to solidify into an inner balance (arr[h]epsia) in ... the mind" (ShATh, p. 456).}

The phenomenological epoche' ... is an ASC during which one's phenomenal mind stands before one's mind's eye in stark, raw, unfolding purity, refreshed every moment ... ."

{""Experience," in this suspended view, as one modern author [Stough 1969, p. 80] described it, "is a simple sequential flow of sense impressions, and all impressions are intrinsically of equal authority."" (ShATh, p. 456)}

ShATh = Thomas McEvilley : The Shape of Ancient Thought : Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. Allworth Pr, NY, 2002.

Suzuki 1970 = S. Suzuki : Zen Mind, Beginner's Mind. NY : Weatherhill.

Stough 1969 = Charlotte L. Stough : Greek Skepticism : a Study in Epistemology. Berkeley : Univ of CA Pr.

p. 168 [supposed] application of epokhe (suspension of judgement) to the study of dreaming

"Gordon Globus ... would have us ... develop the epoche' and apply it to the study of dreaming (1987:64). More specifically, if we bracket our preconceptions and judgements in both the waking life and the dreaming life -- what he calls a "double epoche'" -- we can ask some fundamental questions (ibid:65).

If we set aside ... belief in the reality of waking life and ... belief in the unreality of ... dream life, we find that the two life-worlds are

"indiscernible" (see also Kirtsoglou 2010:323).

{intended to mean that any conjectured features, supposedly distinguishing them, are actually indiscernible}

That is, both life-worlds are pure experience and merely on that basis, one cannot tell them apart. Thus waking and dreaming experiences are

legitimately life-worlds -- they are equally lived {But how can the author be so confidently certain (with neither proof nor evidence) that dreaming is not a variety of death-condition (rather than otherwise?)} --

{How-be-it, whereas, in the waking-state, being alive and being dead are (to external appearances, at least) quite distinguishable : yet that is not so true of the dreaming-state (where, in a dream, dead bodies can, and sometimes do, dramatically arise from death).}

and must be studied as such (again, this is pure Jamesian radical empiricism at work)." {But is to ignore the possibility of influences coming to dreaming from the "Afterlife" (i.e., post-mortem Afterdeath) so "Jamesian"? -- when considering the fact of ("PsJSPA") "William James ... trying to prove the existence of the afterlife." (See also "A-DEDWJ".)}

{Why not study dreaming as a variety of death-world experience, in contrast with waking as a form of life-world experience? And likewise, what is so very radically empeirical in assuming (without citing any evidence what-so-ever) that dreaming is more life-world-based than it is death-world-based? Shamans, who often have much experience in such concerns, typically cite dreaming as more death-connected than life-connected.}

Globus 1987 = Gordon Globus : Dream Life, Wake Life : the Human Condition Through Dreams. Albany : State Univ of NY Pr.

Kirtsoglou 2010 = Elizabeth Kirtsoglou : "Dreaming the Self : a Unified Approach toward Dreams, Subjectivity and the Radical Imagination". HISTORY & ANTHROPOLOGY 21.3:321-35.

"PsJSPA" = "Psychologist James Sought Proof of Afterlife". (citing "Deborah Blum, author of Ghosthunters : William James and the Search for Scientific Proof of Life After Death")

"A-DEDWJ" = "After-Death Experience of the Divine by William James". (quoting from "The Afterdeath Journal of an American Philosopher – The World View of William James by Jane Roberts")

p. 168 "no flowing array of sensory stimulation"??!

"The dream life is like the wake life, except that there is no flowing array of sensory stimulation available to modulate it."

{During sleep, the only possibility for "no flowing array of sensory stimulation" to exist might be in so-called "dreamless sleep" -- though in meditative realization, ("PIDS", p. 297) "The signs of dreamless sleep are ... : ... sparkling lights ... and then ... a steady lamplight." Or, these are : mirage-"lake", "billowing smoke", "sparks", and "sputtering light" (DRCA, p. 478). During any actual dream-state, an abundance of "flowing array of sensory stimulation" is constantly praesent, based in, and emanating from, the divine dream-universe.}

"PIDS" = "Pilgrimage Into Dreamless Sleep". In :- Ryan Hurd & Kelly Bulkeley (edd.) : Lucid Dreaming : New Perspectives on Consciousness in Sleep. Praeger (imprint of ABC-Clio), Santa Barbara (CA), 2014.

DRCA = Anthony Shafton : Dream Reader : Contemporary Approaches to the Understanding of Dreams. State Univ of NY Pr, Albany, 1995.

{"we’re actually the most spiritually awake in deep dreamless sleep and the most asleep in so-called waking reality. ... Spiritual practice, and the nocturnal meditations, can lead us to this realization." ("WhIDY&H")}

"WhIDY&H" = "What Is Dream Yoga and How Do You Do It?"

pp. 168-9 mortal dreamer's (i.e., of mortal visitor to dream-world) interaction with dream-entities, conducted in single-minded (intentful, not distracted) manner

p. 168

"By applying the epoche' to the elements of our experience in dream ..., we actually perceive ... "people" and "plants" and "animals" as real. ... In the dream we react and interact with these ... because they are real to us in that life-

{During our visitations to the aeternal divine dream-universe, we do, indeed, discover the "people" (actually divinities) there to be more intelligent, understanding, and benevolent than in the perishable mortal material universe, the "animals" (who are divinities in animal-disguise) likewise to be (as disclosed in their talking to us) gentle and benevolent; and (if they find us acceptable for communicating withal) plants likewise. There in that sempiternal universe there is, of course, unanimity as to accomplishing the universal divine plan.}

p. 169

world (Craig 1987). ... Globus reports that there is a distinct "single-mindedness" about dreams."

Craig 1987 = P. Erik Craig : "The Realness of Dreams". In :- Richard A. Russo (ed.) : Dreams Are Wiser Than Men. Berkeley : North Atlantic Bks. pp. 34-57.

pp. 169-70 bridging the gap of tribal-and/or-national difference via intertribal and/or international ideological sympathies with one's vis-a`-vis another's modes of dreaming

p. 169

"a phenomenological approach to dreaming opens a way to bridge the gap between our own dream experience and those of our informants in other societies. ...

p. 170

It is not sufficient to do ethnography among a Brazilian people whose cosmology is heavily informed by experiences had under the influence of ayahuasca without attempting to follow one's hosts into the experience --

the ayahuasca life-world.

{This may well, instead, be the ayawaska death-world. In fact, the most usual vision, under the influence of ayawaska, is the interior of a swirling whirlpool -- resembling the tunnel into the Afterdeath World frequently reported by nigh-death experiencers worldwide.}

It is simply impossible to comprehend experiences one had not had oneself. So it is with dreaming. Recounting his work with the Dene Tha Indians of Alberta, Canada, Jean-Guy Goulet notes that, "Dene informants are firm in their conviction that ... ethnographers, who have not experienced the reality of revelation or instruction through dreams and visions do not and cannot understand ... the Dene knowledge system" (1998:xxix)."

Goulet 1998 = Jean-Guy Goulet : Ways of Knowing : Experience, Knowledge, and Power among the Dene Tha. Lincoln : Univ of NE Pr.

p. 171 perspectivist interpretation of dreams

"From the view of perspectivism, ... one is under no obligation to agree with or believe the informants' account of one's experience.

An informant might interpret your dream as being a visitation from an "ancestor,"

{Neither interpretation is applicable. As for the allegation (very commonplace in cultures worldwide) that dreams wherein characters looking identical with, behaving identical with, and designating themselves as, e.g., such of one's relatives as have died in the waking world, and/or as such of one's friends as have died in the waking world, are in actuality praecisely whoever they purport to be : that supposition can very easily be shewn extremely unlikely by the fact that often in one's dreams there appear characters purporting to be living persons of one's acquaintance in the waking world, but on (after awaking) asking such persons in the waking world whether they met one's self in such a dream, they regularly deny any such meeting, thus demonstrating that the dream-characters were simply play-actors similar actors in theatres in the waking-world.}

while your own interpretation is that the dream was centered on an "archetype.""

{The term \archetype\ is utterly misleading. It was invented by Carl G. Jung as substitute for \deity\, because he often dreamt (as described in detail in his Red Book, the contents whereof were kept secret not only during his own lifetime, but for decades afterwards, and not disclosed until recently) of characters who identified themselves as certain well-known deities of antique mythologies : these characters self-identified as deities were urging Carl G. Jung to found-and-establish (in the waking-world) a revival of such antique religions, but (even in such dreams) Carl G. Jung was aware that to attempt to do so would not only be unsuccessful, but could lead to his being involuntarily committed, long-term, in a state-controlled "insane asylum" (which appeared in his dreaming as a scenario wherein he was the victim of the state-government of Switzerland) : RB, "Liber Novus", II:XV-XVI, pp. 295a, 298a-b); therefore he always refused (even in such dreams) to comply with any such requaests (RB, "Drafts of Liber Novus", p. 211b). This dream-contained praedicament of Carl G. Jung's is unrelated to the quandary of whether or not characters who in one's dreams identify themselves as specific waking-world mortals (whether dead or alive in regard to the waking-world) are, or are not, who they purport to be.}

RB = C. G. Jung (edited by Sonu Shamdasani; translated from the German by Mark Kyburz, John Peck, & Sonu Shamdasani) : The Red Book : Liber NovusPHILEMON SER, Foundation of the Works of C. G. Jung, Zu:rich. W. W. Norton & Co. Mondadori Printing, Verona.

RB, "Liber Novus",_II.14-21.htm

RB, "Drafts of Liber Novus",_0.B.htm

p. 173 supposedly "childlike" minds of "savages"

"If one can get past Seligman's rather 19th century ... silly views about "savages" having minds like "children," one can find the ... furthering ... ." {Some 19th-century ethnographers may have seemed (by not proprely qualifying their assertions) to imply that all that the mental processes of primitive tribesfolk are "childlike".}

{Certain (though not all) mental processes of primitive adult tribesfolk may be noticeably similar to those of young children among advanced educated civilized peoples. This would especially be true of their often-deplorable lack of information about world-geography, world-history, and the material sciences (physics, chemistry, geology, etc.). But (as must be borne in mind) this may also be true of uneducated persons (and/or uneducated entire social classes) in the "civilized" world.}

{19th-century ethnographers were required by their respective governments to confirm those governments allegations of the claimed relative general inferiority of the tribesfolk being subjugated by European governments controlling empires of forcibly dominated peoples. Therefore, any shortcomings in those ethnographers' writings cannot be ascribed to themselves personally, but instead to the deliberate policies of the ruling classes (especially royalty and hereditary nobility) dominating their respective governments.}

pp. 173, 174 the manifest reality of dreaming as definitive proof of itself and of anything within it

p. 173

Dreams may instructively be taken ""to be literal experiences of the dreamer's soul ... the gripping reality of a dream while it is being experienced ..." (Tuzin 1975:563)."

p. 174

"my host knows {viz., suppposeth that she knoweth} that the radiant being in her dream was a ghost ... ." {Just about the only persons who conjecture that any praeternaturally "radiant being" must be the "ghost" of some dead person, are either atheists (not believing in existence of deities), or persons forbidden (usually by the official priesthood of some restrictly-organized religion) to believe that divinities could manifest themselves to ordinary commoners.}

{How can anyone who was never radiant during life automatically become so after death? -- and, for that matter, it would be ridiculous to regard a mere "archetype" (a fudging term concocted by C. G. Jung to keep himself safe from being imprisoned as a "dangerous" radical) It is always more sensible to regard any praeternaturally radiant entities encountred (whether when awake or while dreaming) as some mode of immortal divinity.}

Tuzin 1975 = Donald F. Tuzin : "The Breath of a Ghost : Dreams and the Fear of the Dead". ETHOS 3:555-78.

p. 175 access to knowledge gleaned from dreaming

"the only access to knowledge gained from dreaming is by way of learning the skill of dreaming ... (see also Ridington 1988a:103)."

Ridington 1988a = Robin Ridington : "Knowledge, Power, and the Individual in Subarctic Hunting Societies". AMER ANTHROPOLOGIST 90.1:98-110.

p. 175 only as "concepts or icons"??

"in dreams, entities and forces that are normally invisible

(not present in consciousness except as concepts or icons) during a person's waking life

{What if the deities are always (albeit usually invisible) praesent in our waking state, manipulating our every emotion (and thusly, our every conscious thought -- as is regarded absolutely so-and-thus in typical occult metaphysical systems)? In such a system, can those all-controlling powers be designated as mere "concepts or icons"? -- Heaven forbid!! [written 30 Oct 2017]}

may become visible, tangible and palpable during dreaming (see also Sumegi 2008:31)."

{It can reasonably be expected that, in thus manifesting themselves, they are necessarily compelled temporarily to relinquish their power to control our emotions (which could explain why are dreams are so lacking emotional qualities), resigning that power to the nature of dream-universe itself (which could explain why we are so very adept at acquiring intuitional inspiration during our dreamings -- for, we can then extract intuitions directly from the nature of that divine universe itself). [written 30 Oct 2017]}

Sumegi 2008 = Angela Sumegi : Dreamworlds of Shamanism and Tibetan Buddhism. State Univ of NY Pr, Albany.

p. 176 interactive ethnographer

[quoted from Goulet 1998, p. 254] "Ethnographic work can --

but does not need to --

{If the informant-hosts demand this as part of their hosting routine (which is likely if they regard, and treat, the ethnographer as a disciple of theirs), then it would be rude (if not disruptive to the relationship) to refuse to (and, thus, somewhat of a requirement/need, as guest of theirs, to) include this.}

go hand in hand with the anthropologist's experience of dreams and visions. ... More than merely listen to what others say about their lives, then, anthropologists pay attention to their own [dreams]. They observe and listen to other people's responses to

their accounts of their own dreams and/or visions experienced while living among these others.

The informant-hosts may well require this sort of interaction in order for them to ascertain the extent of the ethnographer's becoming personally acculturated to their ways of understanding. This would especially be required by them if they regard the ethnographer as a disciple/initiate of theirs.}

To do so is to become an experiential ethnographer."

{Wrong terminology. To do so is to become an interactive ethnographer. To be an experiential ethnographer is merely to experience writing down facts about the ethnography -- perhaps by means of transcribing or editing the writings (thitherto unpublished field-notes) of another ethnographer.}

pp. 176-7 which brain-systems are involved in {i.e., controlled by} which types of emotional conditions

p. 176

"the limbic system (which mediates ... anger,

p. 177

fear, depression, etc.),

the thalamus (which accomplishes the gating of information between cortical and subcortical areas),

the hypothalamus (involved in arousal, regulation of endocrine and autonomic nervous system activities ...), and

via the inferior temporal lobe, the hippocampus (involved in perceptual recognition and memory;

see ... Fuster 2008, Stuss and Benson 1986)."

Fuster 2008 = Joaquin Fuster : The Prefrontal Cortex. 4th edn. London : Elsevier.

Stuss & Benson 1986 = D. T. Stuss & D. F. Benson : The Frontal Lobes. NY : Raven.

{The emotions themselves may be instilled by transcendent entities resident in other planes-of-existence, and manipulating the minds of mere mortals : thus originating, the emotions thereupon act, in pathways mediated through the aitheric body (including the aitheric body's brain), upon the material body (including upon the material brain). [written 30 Oct 2017]}

p. 178, fn. 4 "psychopathologies"? -- or genuine praescience?

"psychopathologies ... may result in chronic dreams of being overwhelmed by a tidal wave or some other gigantic and unstoppable menace, accompanied by panic, fear or terror (see Barrett 1995:100; Hartmann 2007, 2001)."

{Carl Gustav Jung dreamt of a tidal wave and other unstoppably calamities overwhelming world-civilization early in 1914, and supposed that he must be going insane -- but at that juncture, the Great War commenced and he realized that it was divinely-provided foreknowledge (which is provided to those who are dear to the deities). [There is no such bug-a-boo as "insanity", however many there may be of false accusations (including unknowingly false self-accusations) of "insanity".]}

p. 179 Fijian pessimism as regarding the nature of dreaming

"As Herr notes, "... They are nightmares ...

because they involve dream encounters with other persons, animals, or spirit-entities, encounters that are by their nature potentially dangerous" ([1981]:139)."

{Not all cultures are so pessimistic about dangerous animals appearing in a person's dreams. In SouthAmerIndian culture, dangerous leopards are believed (and experienced) to empower persons (in their dreaming) to be shamans; and in Inuit culture, dangerous polar-bears are believed (and experienced) to empower persons (in their dreaming) to be shamans.}

Herr 1981 = Barbara Herr : "The Expressive Character of Fijian Dream and Nightmare Experiences". ETHOS 9.4:331-52.

p. 180 sleep-paralysis [overtly mentioned by name, and described, infra p. 182] in Tzintzuntzan of Michoaca`n

"The Tzintzuntzan recognize ... the pesadilla, or nightmare. It is very interesting that the Tzintzuntzan

do not consider the pesadilla to be a dream, for

{So-called "sleep-paralysis" is never considered by its experiencers to be a dream-state, nor is is usually categorized as a "nightmare", either.}

it, "... always occurs when ego is falling asleep, yet half awake ... . ...

{Accounts, from other cultures, of "sleep-paralysis", usually describe it as occurring during entry into the waking state, instead of during entry into the dream-state.}

A pesadilla is always, and without exception, a terrifying experience,

{The type of "sleep-paralysis" occurring while awaking from sleep is, in contrast, commonly an exalting religious experience involving joy and thankfulness.}

which robs ego of power of movement and speech, and which leaves him ... awake" ([Foster 1973]:109)."

Foster 1973 = George M. Foster : "Dreams, Character, and Cognitive Orientation in Tzintzuntzan". ETHOS 1.1:106-21.

{We could suspect that the deities who are instilling an emotion of "terror", are so doing in order to display their displeasure at the local abandonment of religious devotions to worship of hummingbird-deities (\tzintzuntzan\ meaning 'hummingbird' in the Tarasca idiom -- e.g., "MTTzM"). The night-terror induced during the sleep-paralysis may also repraesent how (M&E, p. 34) Cupantzieeri ('ballplayer') is slain, as the conclusion of the game of tlachtli, by Ahchuri-hierepe ('hastening night'). Cupantzieeri (whose cadavre is exhumed and carried away by his son Sira-tata`peri) = dream-interpreter Yowsep ('increase', whose cadavre is exhumed and carried away by emigrants including his sons >eprayim 'double fruit' and Mnas^s^eh 'causing to forget'); "double fruit" = double-maize god Xolotl, while "causing to forget" = Quetzal-coatl, so forgetful of propriety while ensconced with his sistre Quetzal-petlatl.}

"MTTzM" = "The Magic Town of Tzintzuntzan in Michoacán". "“Tzintzuntzan” is an onomatopoeic Purépecha rendering of the sound made by a hummingbird."

M&E = Bernardino Verástique : Michoacán and Eden. Univ of TX Pr, Austin, 2000.

p. 181 "shrieking"? -- or operatic singing?

[quoted from Fortune 1963, p. 152] "a woman would wake from a nightmare ... that

the flying witches ... were just outside baulked by her spirit's luck in getting home before them.

{This type of dream is reminiscent of the myth how the daughters of Pandareos "were abducted by" the flying Harpuiai goddesses (DCM, s.v. "Pandareus", p. 342a).}

Then the night would be hideous with ... alternate high and low shrieking, expressing such fear ... ." {"Sometimes katana, fire vented forth from the pubes of flying witches, is seen at night." (Fortune 1963, loc. cit. -- RFF:SD, p. 152) [Fire emitted from internal organs of flying witches's bodies is sometimes witnessed in Malaya.]}

{Not dissimilar from how a man would, in practicing sorcery, "feign ... groaning" (RFF:SD, p. 168) : instead of expressing fear, such woman's "shrieking" was evidently operatic-style singing in ululating triumph, and intended, furthermore, to protect the women's husbands from those Dobuan flying dream-witches, whose (MMM, p. 71) "victims are ... most often ... inept husbands." [written 30 Oct 2017]}

Fortune 1963 = R. F. Fortune : Sorcerers of Dobu. Rev. edn. London : Butler & Tanner.

DCM = Pierre Grimal : The Dictionary of Classical Mythology. 1986.

MMM = David D. Gilmore : Misogyny : the Male Malady. Univ of PA Pr, Philadelphia, 2001.

{The "fire vented forth from the pubes of flying witches", and likewise from their internal organs, would evidently be subtle-body projections aequivalent to the deities (praesumably luminous, when engaged in darkness at night) witnessed within the non-projected internal body-organs, by practitioners of Taoist "internal alchemy". There are many detailed (and mutually variant) accounts of such in the Taoist scriptural canon, some translated into European languages (such as, English).}

{While not being utilized by flying witches, the magical katana fire is retained in the custody of (RFF:SD, App. V, p. 296) a dadabuia tree-serpent, who must be the Dobuan aequivalent to Akheloios, who (GM 142.d) "deftly turned into a speckled serpent" : for, Akheloios was (GM 142.b) rival suitor (against Hera-klees) for the hand of heroine Deianeira, who wove (GM 142.k) the "shirt" which afterward "burned" (GM 145.c), producing the hot waterspring at Thermo-pulai. ('Shirt' is the meaning of (Strong's 3801) \KToNet\ or \KuTToNet\, evidently cognate with \KaTaNa\ : cf. the shirt, or coat, of-many-colors worn by Yowsep the dream-interpreter.) [written 31 Oct 2017]}

{In a variant of this Dobuan origin-myth for the cooking of kita ('yam') but found in the lower Sepik area of Papua, two emmets (PMEM&L, s.v. "Fire 3.") brought the flame into use amongst humankind for yam-cooking. Emmets emanate themselves, by Jove's divine grace, from the dream-world (GM 66.e), for the benefit of one of the 3 judges divinely set over Tartaros (GM 66.k); thus demonstrative of the connection between dream-universe and mortals' postmortem-universe.}

GM = Robert Graves : The Greek Myths. 1955.

Strong = James Strong : Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary of Bible Words.

PMEM&L = Jan Knappert : Pacific Mythology : an Encyclopedia of Myth and Legend. Aquarian Pr, 1992; reprinted Diamond Bks, Lolndon, 1995.

p. 181 somniloquy is a message from deities

"Talking in one's sleep is understood to be a message from ... the gods, often in a language that only the gods and the priests can understand."

p. 181 dread of goddess, who after sexual intercourse with dreaming mortal man, transmogrifieth herself into female monster; vampire-transmogrification

[Kuma tribe of Papua : quoted from Bourguignon 1954, p. 462 {read "264"}] "The dreamer makes love to a strange girl before he discovers she is really a masalai or ... bush spirit masquerading as a human. He is horror-stricken ... ."

"in the many versions of the vampire ... from eastern Europe, the vampire usually presents as a charming, attractive and engaging form, only to morph into a scary and dangerous man-beast ... or other carnivore (wolf, bat, owl; see Jones 1951; Beresford 2008)."

Bourguignon 1954 = Erik Bourguignon : "Dreams and Dream Interpretation in Haiti". AMER ANTHROPOLOGIST 56.2--Part 1, pp. 262-8.

Jones 1951 = Ernest Jones : On the Nightmare. NY : Liveright.

Beresford 2008 [not listed on p. 510; perhaps Bruce Beresford's DVD video Mister Johnson is intended.]

pp. 182-3 instance of sleep-paralysis accompanied by praeternatural apparition of "Old Hag"

p. 182

[Philippine : quoted from Hufford 1982, p. 237] "At about one o'clock [A.M], ... He opened his eyes and looked around. At the window he saw an

p. 183

old woman, the lower part of her body missing, staring at him,

{"Manananggals ..., in flight, it detaches itself from its human torso. Imagine just seeing half of the creature flying above you." ("PhM&F -- C&M")}

her greying hair standing up

{[Apache] "he saw her shadow turn to that of a bear, with the hair standing up ... ." (M&TWhMA, p. 177)} {[Navaho] "he could see her shadow transform" (FGuD, p. 192)}

and with her lips open in a ... grin. He ... tried to scream but nothing came out of his mouth. He tried ... but he could not move. He tried to close his eyes but he couldn't. After a couple of minutes,

the aswang flew away."

{"Usually, the Aswang is a woman during the day. At night, however, it may appear as a bird" ("M -- A").}

Hufford 1982 = D. J. Hufford : The Terror That Comes in the Night : an Experience-Centered Study of Supernatural Assault Traditions. Philadelphia : Univ of PA Pr.

"PhM&F -- C&M" = "Philippines Mythology and Folklore -- Creatures and Monsters".

M&TWhMA = Grenville Goodwin : Myths and Tales of the White Mountain Apache. MEMOIRS OF THE AMER FOLKLORE SOC, 33. NY, 1939.

FGuD = Carol K. Mack & Dinah Mack : A Field Guide to Demons, Fairies, Fallen Angels, and Other Subversive Spirits. Arcade Publ, NY, 1998.

"M -- A" = "Monsters -- Aswang".

p. 183 cerebral activity correlated with projection of the astral body

"One experience that is often associated with [dreaming of] flying cross-culturally ... -- especially when the dreamer is fairly lucid -- is separation [of the astral body] from the physical body (Shields 1978 ...). This is the classic ... soul flight, or astral projection

occurring during dreaming.

{UTTERLY FALSE!! There is absolutely NO record of its every having occurred during dreaming : to the utter-and-complete contrary, every recorded instance of it hath always occurred starkly during the waking state.}

Such experiences appear to be mediated by structures lying in the area of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) on both sides of the cortex (Blanke et al. 2004, 2005 ...).

Subjects electrically stimulated in that area often report having spontaneous OBEs."

Shields 1978 = D. Shields : "A Cross-Cultural Study of Out-of-Body Experiences ...". J OF THE SOC FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH 49:697-741.

Blanke et al. 2004 = Olaf Blanke; Theodor Landis; Laurent Spinelli; & Margitta Seeck : "Out-of-Body Experience ...". BRAIN 127.2:243-58.

Blanke et al. 2005 = Olaf Blanke; Christine Mohr; Christoph M. Michel; Alvaro Pascual-Leone; Peter Brugger; Margitta Seeck; Theodor Landis; & Gregory Thut : "Linking Out-of-Body Experience ... to ... the Temporoparietal Junction". J OF NEUROSCIENCE 25.3:550-7.

{The experience of the process of one's astral body's being extracted, by spirit-guides, out from the material body, must induce (praecipitate, cause) an electro-biochemical interaction capable to informationally signaling to the appropriate divine functionaries in the astral-plane universe that such process is underway : in order that such divine functionaries be notified to impart the information needed, by said spirit-guides, to direct the astral component of this projectivity along the route praeternaturally indicated by the extruded (spinneretly teased out of ectoplasm) silvern cord.

When artificially "electrically stimulated in that area", the same function of informationally signaling to the appropriate divine functionaries in the astral-plane is articially induced, resultant in those functionaries' artificially forcing the spirit-guides to proceed to extract the astral body out from material body. [written 19 Nov 2017]}

p. 184 various subtle bodies wherein one may reside (or emanate); and speculative mergings of these in doctrinal hypotheses [quoted from Lang 1909]

"the earliest ... reasoners would decide

(1) that man has a "life" (which leaves him during sleep {more praecisely, the dream-body may dissociate from the material body}, finally in death);

(2) that man also possesses a "phantom" (which appears to other people in their visions {as doppel-ganger} and dreams {as animate simulacrum of the person being figured}).

The ... philosopher would then "combine his information," like a celebrated writer on Chinese metaphysics. ...

{referring to the composite description of the hun-soul of the defunct as subsisting both (1) at the ancestral tablet and (2) in the tomb}

The result would be "an apparitional soul," or "ghost soul." ...

When the earliest reasoners ... had evolved this conscious, ... separable soul, capable of surviving the death of the body,

it was not difficult for them to develop the rest {residue} of Religion ... ."

Lang 1909 = Andrew Lang : The Making of Religion. London : Longmans, Green & Co.

pp. 184-5 sound reasoning, experientially real

p. 184

"Suffice it to say that ... Lang's ... reasoning, like E. B. Tylor's, was sound enough. Considering the fact ...

p. 185

that many polyphasic cultures interpret dreaming as reality, ... a domain of reality in which the normally invisible soul becomes visible -- "palpably" real ... -- and is able to leave the physical body behind and wander. It is hardly absurd to conclude that this somehow experientially real soul can escape and survive death ... .

But there was a time in our cultural history when we would have pointed to the ability of the soul to leave {i.e., dissociate from} our {material} bodies in dreams and other ASC (see Parman 1991:22-26 on Classical Greece)."

Parman 1991 = Susan Parman : Dream and Culture : an Anthropological Study of the Western Intellectual Tradition. Wesport (CT) : Praeger.

p. 185 witnessing, and entring via, portal into other universe (considered to be a lucid-dreaming world) : praesumably starting from another subplane of the material plane

[quoted from Whiteman 1961, p. 60] "While in bed and apparently awake,

{Awake, but in a different subplane of the material plane (alternatively describable as a subplane of the aitheric plane), to wit, a subplane where (similarly as with the subplane of sleep paralysis) praeternatural manifestations freely manifest themselves.}

I perceived a visual opening with circular boundary,

{porthole into another universe/plane-of-existence}

within which there was presented a scene in bright sunlight and vivid colors. It appeared to be a park, with many people walking peacefully about. ...

Immediately I rose and walked toward the opening. The opening appeared to enlarge itself gradually,

but before entering wholly within it I had to pass over a patch of sandy-coloured ground,

{Cf. entry into "the underworld " by "landing on soft sand" (EH, p. 102 ).}

as if bared for excavation. It seemed to represent a gulf between two spheres of existence.

Passing through, however, I reach the park and mix with the people."

Whiteman 1961 = Joseph Hilary Michael Whiteman : The Mystical Life : an Outline of Its Nature and Teachings from the Evidence of Direct Experience. London : Faber & Faber.

EH = Josephine McCarthy (with Peter McCarthy) : The Exorcist's Handbook. Golem Media, Berkeley (CA), 2010.

pp. 186-7 dream of riding on a leaping ox

p. 186

[quoted from Laughlin 1976, p. 34]"And he gave me a black cow. ... Quickly I mounted it ... there at the white house, just inside the meadow,

{Cf. how, among the "Ox-Herding Pictures" of C^>an, "In the sixth picture, he is riding on the ox." ("10O-HPZ")}

but the black cow was flying terribly high, it seemed.

{In the 7th Ox-Herding picture, "his gaze is directed upwards in the direction of the moon appearing on the sky" ("10O-HPSh"). According to Mother Goose, "the cow jumped over the moon".}

It jumped over fences,

{The 8th Ox-Herding picture is a circle, perhaps intending the fence of a corral for oxen.}

the tall trees, everything. ...

{The 9th Ox-Herding picture is "the picture of a cherry tree" ("10O-HPSh").}

p. 187

"I will cure your leg," she said."

{In the 10th picture, "is the third leg of the tradition" ("10O-HPSh").}

"The dreamer is aware of himself ...".

{In the 7th picture, "he is still quietly dreaming" ("RS10O-HP").}

Laughlin 1976 = Robert M. Laughlin : Of Wonders Wild and New : Dreams from Zinacanta`n. Washington (DC) :

"10O-HPZ" = "Ten Ox-Herding Pictures of Zen".

"10O-HPSh" = "The Ten Ox-Herding Pictures of Shuhbun".

"RS10O-HP" = "Reading Selection from "The Ten Oxherding Pictures"". Readings in Eastern Philosophy.

{"Mounting the ox I meander home;
The sound of my flute rides with the evening clouds." ("HP10O-HP") With this instrumental music-playing, cf. "Hey! Diddle, diddle, the cat's got the fiddle ... ." Or, "Hey, diddle, diddle!
The cat and the fiddle,
The cow jumped over the moon" (
"C&FHDD") :

[with respect to, in the "Dream ... in the Alameda Central" (W:"STD"), "Catrina ... to symbolize ... the Mexican willingness to laugh at death itself" (W:"LCC")] "The little dog laft to see such a craft ... ." [Viz., a spacecraft is implied in this bovine voyage to the moon : for, when cow-goddess Ioi "travelled down from the sources of the Nile" (GM 56.b), she was arriving from the Selenes Oros, the Lunae Montes 'Mountains of the Moon' (DG&RG:"LM").]}

{Where, for the 10th Ox-Herding picture, the staff of the Zen master "is the third leg of the tradition" : this is the the 3rd of the 3 legs for the evening-stroll in the Riddle of the Sphing- (otherwise spelled \Phig-\) as recounted by her to Oidi-pod- ('swollen-foot'). Such staff is praepared by coiling around it, helically, a length of kudzu-liana, so as to become emblem-of-office for each Zen master : thus aequivalent to the helical coiling around the staff of ASKlepios = [Eddic] ASKr 'ash-tree' (at Asheville, NC?) husband of Embla the emblematic. (This is supposedly the code-enciphering-and-deciphering staff of Spartan-covert-"intelligence-agency" fame.)}

{The Sphing-/Phig- (of Boiotian, or of Aonian, myth) is a lioness or pantheress similar to Chinese goddess 'White Tigress' the 'queen-mother of the west' "with white teeth"("JTM"), similar to bareing-her-teeth Aztec flint-wielding goddess (W:"Mictecacihuatl") promoting self-beheading lunacy amid darkness, thus illustrated, as per Eduard Seler, with CBM, p. 18 upper registre -- so as to indicate her teeth-bareing, as a whore's aptitude for (with their permission) biting her male customers : (W:"Santa Muerte") "As Señora de la Noche ("Lady of the Night"), she is often invoked by ... prostitutes." The divine turkey descending from the sky with amputated human-arm-gripped-by-beak is not only Aztec female-goddess counterpart (sistre?) to (in Popol Vuh) male-god '7 Macaw', but also is aequivalent to the hand-of-glory-like-amputated-human-arm-seizing whore-daughter of king Rhampsinitos (as recounted by Hero-dotos 2:121.e). The implication would be that men in a certain variety of sexual dream must be crafty in tricking dream-whores when paying to them any agreed-on fee after sexual intercourse under such false praetenses, lest such a whore-goddess (in the dreaming world) while biting (with such act as her agreed-on fee) his arm, lest (if she be not deceived) she, of a sudden, transmogrify herself into a monstrous turkey-goddess in order cleanly to bite-off his whole arm in order to deliver it to the peach-goddess).}

"HP10O-HP" = "A Higher Perspective on the Ten Ox-Herding Pictures".




DG&RG:"LM" = William Smith : Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, s.v. "LUNAE MONTES".

"JTM" = "Jade Tortoise Mountain".


CBM = Caudex Borgianus Mexicanus

W:"Santa Muerte"

Herodotos : Euterpe 121.e

pp. 187-9 varieties of experiential bliss abided within while undergoing trance-states

p. 187

"These energy flows can range from being quite subtle (frisson, tingle, flush of delight), to full-on ... ecstasy (rapture, rush, orgasmic bliss, ecstatc bliss) with every gradation between (happiness, joy, elation, exhilaration, euphoria). ... The term use in reporting these feelings will generally depend upon ... the context in which they arise, and the imagery associated with the feelings. The hallmark in every

p. 188

case is the flow (Csikszentmihalyi 2008) ..., and in whatever part of they dream body they are felt. Bliss often accompanies lucidity and flying ... . Bliss may become so intense as to be transpersonally ecstatic ... .

An excellent example ..., ... Hewitt (1988) :

[quoted] I suddenly became lucid in the dream ... . I am very glad to be lucid ... . As usual, I want to get outside ... . Walking down the hallway I colme to the exit ... . ... Outside, ...

Soaring through the treetops, I become entangled ...,

{This mishap is likely to have occurred as a warning not to neglect to honor the tree-spirits.}

extricating myself. Finally above the limbs, I continue my flight to a few hundred feet high. While flying, I think, "... I'll trying a floating meditation in the sky." ... Immediately I begin

to float through the sky, upside down with eyes closed ... . ...

{praesumably in reference to the upside-down eyen-closed lunacy depicted in CBM, p. 18 upper registre}

The less distracted I am ..., the more ... genuinely joyous the experience becomes -- ... ecstasy. Gradually ... as I awaken there is

p. 189

a feeling of ... well-being ... ."

Csikszentmihalyi 2008 = Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi : Flow : the Psychology of Optimal Experience. NY : Harper.

Hewitt 1988 = Daryl E. Hewitt : "Induction of Ecstatic Dreams". LUCIDITY LETTER 7.1:64-6.

CBM, p. 18

p. 189 sensation of wind in interior of one's body

"Carol Lederman (1988) ... during her investigation ... found Malays ... about ... experiences of the 'Inner Winds' ... "told me that the only way I could know would be to experience it myself" (ibid:804). Eventually, her shaman teacher ... began a ritual that led her to entering a trance state. "At the height of my trance, I felt the Wind blowing inside my chest with the strength of a hurricane" (ibid:806)."

Lederman 1988 = Carol Lederman : "Wayward Winds : Malay... Shamanism". SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE 27.8:799-810.

pp. 189-90 sensation of levin within one's body

p. 189

"the Quiche' Maya ... recognize official dream interpreters. These interpreters are considered to have an inner "lightning" soul. The

p. 190

lightning travels around in ... the interpreters who "describe the sensation of body lightning ... moving rapidly through their flesh in a flickering manner ... manner, similar to the pattern of exterior sheet lightning as it moves at night over lakes" (Tedlock 1981:315). Trained interpreters are able to discern information from the precise pattern of movement of the lightning in their bodies."

Tedlock 1981 = Barbara Tedlock : "Quiche' Maya Dream Interpretation". ETHOS 9.4:313-30.

p. 191 author Ch.D.L.'s lucid dream of s`arapiym (fiery serpents) & of merkabah (chariot of fire)

"I dreamed that I was standing hand in hand with my child self under a fiery arch that had morphed from two enormous serpents that had arisen on each side of us and touched [together] their heads above us.

I was ... watching the scene from a position behind the fiery portal and my dream selves,

{This statement would imply that in the dream the author was bodiless, and was merely conjecturing that the two male human figures whom he was observing stood in some manner of relationship to him. Many sort of vain speculations about the significance of scenes observed, may be supposed, to a dreamer's fancy.}

so I could see they were located on a vast plain

I was beginning to awaken from the dream and I was in a hypnopomp;ic state when a fiery golden chariot being drawn by huge golden horses appeared out of an intense, almost blinding golden light ... ."

p. 192 two aspects of numosity

"Numinosity is a feeling of the presence of divinity.

{This word can be translated as 'awe', such as may be felt by menials in the praesence of their superior.}

The word derives from the Latin numen, "spirit,"

{More actually, the classical Latin meaning of \numen\ is 'the divine will'; and it is apparently derived from \nuo| 'I nod' (as signal to menials to perform some command).}

and was used ... by the German theologian Rudolf Otto (1869-1937) in his extremely influential book Das Heilige (1917), which was later translated into English with the title The Idea of the Holy (1958).

Otto distinguished two aspects of numosity :

the mysterium tremendum, or

the invocation of fear and trembling, {Wrong! Not being an exorcist himself, R.O. utterly misunderstood the actual situation.}

{More actually, the sensation is of shivering (rather than of trembling), for there is no "fear" in it what-so-ever. The shivering effect is caused (in the praesence of an exorcist) by a praeternatural spirit temporarity trapped within the body of a mortal whose body is experiencing the trembling, due to that spirit's joyful anticipation of being conducted (by the exorcist) out of the mortal host's body, so as to be able to return to that spirit's divine homeland.}

and the mysterium fascinans, or the feeling of fascination, wonder and awe."

{As the converse of being set free, this "feeling" is felt by the praeternatural spirit in becoming entrapped, by that feeling, into the body of a mortal host. [written 4 Nov 2017]}

p. 192 everyone "is"?? -- or everyone "is capable of utilizing as-if-it-were apparatus"?

"The attention paid to dreams is universal precisely because everyone is a dreaming brain." {Or, rather, everyone is associated with a brain which is capable of functioning as a portal for witnessing, and for entring-into, various worlds, including a dream-universe.}

{Because of a mortal's inhaerent nature as a composite-plane entity, an apparatus for particularizing the plane for contemporary interaction therewith, is required. This is largely a brain (but also including the other bodily organs and bodily tissues), one such body for associating with the composite (viz., material) plane, and one-each such bodies for surveilling the non-composite (viz., subtle) planes where divinely-instigated dream-activities are to be winessed.}


Charles D. Laughlin : Communing With the Gods : Consciousness, Culture, and the Dreaming ... . Daily Grail Publ, Brisbane, 2011.