Communing With the Gods, 4




Experience and the Dreaming


pp. 96-7 sleep-inertia & sleep-deprivation

"We are not at our cognitive or social best until we have time to wake up. This is called "sleep inertia" (Dinges 1990) ...

and total sleep deprivation over a lengthy period of time can prove cognitively detrimental and occasionally fatal".

Dinges 1990 = David F. Dinges : "Are You Awake? Cognitive Performance and Reverie During the Hypnop;ompic State". In :- Richard F. Bootzin; John F. Kihlstrom; & Daniel L. Schacter (edd.) : Sleep and Cognition. Washington (DC) : Amer Psychological Assn.

p. 97 flow of blood in brain during dreaming

"REM is associated with increased blood flow to specific areas of the brain (Palagini and Rosenlicht 2011:183)."

Palagini & Rosenlicht 2011 = Laura Palagini & Nicholas Rosenlicht : "Sleep, Dreaming and Mental Health : a Review of ... Perspectives". SLEEP MEDICINE REVIEWS 15:179-86.

p. 98 management of the glycogen supply in the brain

"The Benington group (2000 ...) has shown that ... the amount of energy (in the form of glycogen) available to our brain cells decreases during the day {viz., while we are awake}, and increases during NREM sleep during the night (NREM comprises around 80% of our adult nightly sleep)."

Benington 2000 = Joel H. Benington : "Sleep Homeostasis and the Function of Sleep". SLEEP 23.7:959-66.

pp. 98-9 ratio of weight to energy-consumption by brain

p. 98

"our brain accounts for perhaps 1/50th of our total weight, and yet consumes 1/5th or more of the energy we

p. 99

take on-board as food."

p. 99 sleep is for enhancing synaptic plasticity in brain

"sleep facilitates the consolidation of memory, and does so by increasing the "synaptic plasticity" -- that is the ability of the ... system of synapses involved in memory storage to change and grow."

p. 99 chemical released from axon to affect dendrite

"a synapse is a point of connection between nerve cells (or neurons) ... a ... synapse between the axon (an appendix reaching off from the body of a nerve cell ...) and a dendrite (a smaller appendage ... growing out of the body of the nerve cell. The axon communicates with the dendrite by releasing tiny bubbles of a chemical messenger (called a neurotransmitter) across a tiny gap (synaptic junction) between the transmitting cell and the receiving cell. Synaptic plasticity is the ability of the cell to change the quality and properties of this biochemical communication."

p. 100 problem-solving & artistic inspiration during sleep

p. 100

"Deirdre Barrett (2001) has compiled ... the more famous anecdotes and research pertaining to creativity and problem solving during sleep in her book The Committee of Sleep,

the title having been taken from a comment by John Steinbeck.

[p. 100, fn. 2 "It iws a common experience that a problem difficult at night is resolved in the morning after after the committee of sleep has worked on it" (John Steinbeck as quoted in Barrett 2001:ix)."]

The experiences of scientists, poets, artists and musicians are described, as well as the results of experimental research into the properties and processes that constitute the "committee."

The most common descriptions are by various artists -- painters, poets, writers, actors, [and] so forth -- who find and sometimes seek inspiration from dream imagery. ...

p. 101

Other scholars have linked ancient cave art with dreaming (Lewis-Williams 2002)."

Barrett 2001 = Deirdre Barrett : The Committee of Sleep : How Artists, Scientists, and Athletes Use Dreams for Creative Problem Solving. Oneiroi Pr.

Lewis-Williams 2002 = J. D. Lewis-Williams : A Cosmos in Stone : Interpreting Religion and Society Through Rock Art. Lanham (MD) : AltaMira.

p. 102 (quoted from Wagner et al. 2004) hippocampus of brain for sleep-enabled insight

"sleep-dependent gain of insight may be restructured by activity of the hippocampus ..., .... considered to play an essential role generating awareness in memory ... .

Reactivation of hippocampal cell assemblies during sleep ... is regarded as a mechanism by which recently encoded materials stored stored temporarily in autoassociative hippocampal networks are played back to the neocortex where they are gradually incorporated into preexisting knowledge representations. ...

Thus, ... sleep, by hippocampal-neocortical replay, ... can "catalyze" mental restructuring, thereby setting the stage for the emergence of insight."

Wagner et al. 2004 = U. Wagner; S. Gais; H. Heider; R. Verleger; & J. Born : "Sleep Inspires Insight". NATURE 427:352-5.

pp. 103-4 componential structures & consciousness

p. 103

"The ... processes that mediate consciousness, that mediate a specific S[tate]O[f]C[onsciousness], indeed that mediate ... experience are componential in their structure (Hebb 1949; ...

p. 104

McGilchrist 2009:220 ...; Revonsuo 2006:10-14); that is, they are product of many ... structures that combine in a distinct, recurring and hierarchical organization ..., making each state they mediate familiar and subjectively identifiable."

Hebb 1949 = Donald O. Hebb : The Organization of Behavior. NY : Wiley.

McGilchrist 2009 = Iain McGilchrist : The Master and His Emissary : the Divided Brain and the Making of the Modern World. New Haven (CT) : Yale Univ Pr.

Revonsuo 2006 = Antti Revonsuo : "The Reinterpretation of Dreams : an Evolutionary Hypothesis of the Function of Dreaming". BEHAVIORAL & BRAIN SCIENCES 23:793-1121.

p. 105 brain-stem

"driven by evolutionarily older nuclei in the brain stem (especially the nuclei in the pons and areas of the basal ganglia such as the striatum, as well as the hypothalamus, collectively called th e reticular activating system ...), and alternate in a lawful manner all night long with REM sleep states increasing in duration from a few minutes at the beginning of sleep to 30 minutes or so toward the end of sleep (... Moorcroft 2003:24)."

Moorcroft 2003 = William H. Moorcroft : Understanding Sleep and Dreaming. NY : Kluwer Academic.

p. 106 dreaming, either with or without eye-movement

"Dream recall -- that is, remembering dream experiences ... -- is very roughly 80% during REM sleep and

45% during NREM (Nielsen 1999:106-107)."

{Very likely, dreaming devoid of material-body eye-movement is concerned with bodiless dreaming (comparable with remote-viewing while awake).}

pp. 107-8 activities engaged so as to induce dreaming

p. 107

"Dream incubation ... means that special ritual techniques are used to evoke and direct dreaming toward the solution of a particular problem, fulfillment of a specific intention, etc. ...; e.g., the practice of dharna among Bengali Hindu pilgrims (Morinis 1982) ... . ...

p. 108

Any number of things {activities} can penetrate into and influence the dream life from waking life (Schredl 2003), and these may be orchestrated for particular effects, usually in religious rituals with the intent of evoking significant dreams and visions (Winkelman 2010:79-88).

Here is an example ... -- Frank Speck's description ... among the Naskapi Indians of Labrador (... [1935]:188) :

[quoted] ... when the soul-spirit is strong and active, ... he can expect from it{s adventures, as arranged by deities, in the dream-world} continual direction and guidance in all affairs. Accordingly, frequency of dreams is a blessing.

Anything that will induce dreaming is a religious advantage : fasting, dancing, singing, drumming, rattling, the sweat bath, seclusion, meditation, eating certain foods, as well as ... various kinds of medicine ... and drugs, when such things ... can be gotten.

... Such stimuli also include flickering lights,

{Viewing such may also assist with trancing.}

repeating chants

{Listening to reiigious-style chanting can also (at least in myself) induce dreaming of hearing chanting, including (on occasion) of dreaming of viewing the chanters while they are chanting in the dream.}

and mantras ... (... Gellhorn and Kiely 1972)."

Morinis 1982 = E. E. Morinis : "A Case Study of Dream Incubation at a Bengali Pilgrimage Centre". CONTRIB TO INDIAN SOCIOLOGY n.s. 16.2:255-70.

Schredl 2003 = M. Schredl : "Continuity Between Waking and Dreaming". SLEEP & HYPNOSIS 5:38-52.

Winkelman 2010 = Michael J. Winkelman : Shamanism : a ... Paradigm of Consciousness and Healing. 2nd edn. Santa Barbara (CA) : Praeger.

Speck 1935 = Frank G. Speck : Naskapi : the Savage Hunters of the Labrador Peninsula.

Gellhorn & Kiely 1972 = Ernst Gellhorn & W. F. Kiely : "Mystical States of Consciousness". J OF NERVOUS & MENTAL DISEASES 154:399-405.

p. 109 sections of the cerebrum involved with particular types of dreaming

"the extent of involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex determines the social quality of dreams (Amodio and Frith 2006) ... .

{Or, doth the the social quality already inhaerent in the dreaming induce ("determine") involvement of that part of the cerebrum?}

The PFC is the evolutionarily youngest part of our brain (Jerison 1973, 1985; Rilling and Insel 1999), and has expanded in proportion to the overall neocortex".

{That part of the cerebrum expanded so as to accommodate expanding needs of higher quality of souls which were becoming incarnate into that evolutionary lineage, in accordance with a divinely-instituted plan. [written 25 Oct 2017]}

Amodio & Frith 2006 = David M. Amodio & Chris D. Frith : "Meeting of Minds : the Medial Frontal Cortex and Social Cognition". NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE 7:268-77.

Jerison 1973 = Harry J. Jerison : Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence. NY : Academic Pr.

Jerison 1985 = Harry J. Jerison : "On the Evolution of Mind". In :- D. A. Oakley (ed.) : Brain and Mind. NY : Methuen.

Rilling & Insel 1999 = J. K. Rilling & T. R. Insel : "The Primate Neocortex n Comparative Perspective Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging". J OF HUMAN EVOLUTION 37:191-223.

{The author, along with all "neurologists" cited by him, may be (and praesumably are) systematically misjudging the direction of causation concerning dreaming : social and religious factors (derived from the nature of the soul and from the nature of its its divine spirit-guides) may, instead, ordain any material-world-ensconced cerebral functioning. [written 25 Oct 2017] The material-world cerebrum can do no more than merely limit-and-hamper thinking, which is the natural functioning of the soul as assisted by spirits. Evolution of species is in accord with the divine plan to provide bodies available to become occupied by souls of, eventually, the appropriate nature (namely, those souls inhaerently eager to co-operate with the dream-world ensconced deities).}

p. 110 active involvement of praefrontal lobes of cerebrum in lucid dreaming (but not in non-lucid dreaming)

"Lack of P[rae]F[rontal]C[ortical] involvement in "normal" [viz., non-lucid] dreaming is the reason why there is a relative poverty of recall, continuity, temporal plot-line and reflexive awareness ... in dream recall (Pace-Schott 2011). ...

In lucid dreaming, a "transience" {read "transeunce" ('production of effects outside of the mind')} of PFC activation during the dream state ... will operate to alter the components ... mediating the dream (Dietrich 2007:243), entraining not only some or all of the executive functions ..., but also the level ... of involvement of midbrain vestibular system mediation of spatial orientation (Snyder and Gackenbach 1991), emotion and autonomic system tuning (LaBerge, Levitan and Dement 1986)."

Pace-Schott 2011 = Edward F. Pace-Schott : "The Neurobiology of Dreaming". In :- M. H. Kryger; T. Roth; & W. C. Dement (edd.) : Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 4th edn. Philadelphia : Elsevier. pp. 563-75.

Dietrich 2007 = Arne Dietrich : Introduction to Consciousness : Neuroscience, Cognitive Science, and Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan.

Snyder & Gackenbach 1991 = Thomas J. Snyder & Jayne Gackenbach : "Vestibular Involvement in the Neurocognition of Lucid Dreaming". In :- Jayne Gackenbach & Anees A. Sheikh (edd.) : Dream Images : a Call to Mental Arms. Amityville (NY) : Baywood. pp. 55-78.

LaBerge, Levitan, & Dement 1986 = Stephan LaBerge; Lynne Levitan; & William C. Dement : "Lucid Dreaming Physiological Correlates of Consciousness During REM Sleep". J OF MIND & BEHAVIOR 7.2-3:251-8.

{The cognitive activity lacking in non-lucid dreaming is "reflexive awareness" (i.e., reflecting upon, or considering/contemplating, the relationship between the dream-scene and the nature of one's state-of-consciousness); this cognitive activity is apparently suradded to the dreaming by means of involvement of the praefrontal lobes of the cerebrum. Is this affect communicated by means of subliminal telepathy, directed from the material body to the non-material subtle awareness ensconced in the dream-world directly via the subtle body whereof one may be in occupation during the dreaming-duration, or instead indirectly via mediation by subtle-plane-residing spirit-guides controlling one's mentation in the dream-universe? Could posing this quaestion with sufficient earnestness induce increased attention to this concern by one's dream-ensconced spirit-guides? [quaery added 9 Oct 2017]}

p. 111 differences in dream-content betwixt dextral & sinistral dreamers

"McNamara, Clark and Hartmann (1998) have shown some differences in dream content among right- and left-handed dreamers."

McNamara, Clark, & Hartmann 1998 = Patrick McNamara; Jill Clark; & Ernest Hartmann : "Handedness and Dream Content". DREAMING 8.1:15-22.

p. 111 Are we fundamentally "bodies"?

"we are bodies that are doing the "mind-thing" -- ... "mind" is one of the things our body does."

{Wrong! We are soul-spirit composites performing acts of mentalization; "body" being simply an artificial illusion taking various forms in accordance with the plane-of-existence being resided in.}

p. 112 Can material substance actually "experience" anything?

"neuroscientists ... already knew they were experiencing brains". {"Knew"? -- or fallaciously conjectured?!}

{Mere material substance (including the material brain) cannot experience anything : experience is to be sensed by soul and by spirit, instead.}

{Jn~ana/Gnosis ('knowledge') is inhaerent only in the immortal spirit-guide (fravas^i), and is extended by divine grace into the soul-and-spirit of mortals.}

pp. 113-4 radical empeirikismos

p. 113

"William ... James presented ... his ... radical empiricism in two key articles entitled "Does Consciousness Exist?" and "A World of Pure Experience," both published in the same year in the same journal (James 1904a, 1904b). James's radical empiricism ... requires : (1) that all ... theories ... be grounded in lived experience, and (2) that no experience be excluded from the scientific purview (Taylor 1994:353-354)."

p. 114

"the sensorium and its constituent particles are strictly empirical -- actually radically empirical -- for they are empirically present every moment of consciousness, although they normally require the skills of

a trained contemplative ...

{i.e., reclusive mystic}

to apperceive them as such (... Laughlin and Throop 2009;

see also Harding ... for a delightful Zen approach to discovering the sensorium)."

{There is an instructive ("ATh-P") "simile popularized by Buddhaghosa in his Path of Purification (Visuddhi Magga) to illustrate the seventeen moments of consciousness in a thought-process."}

James 1904a = William James : "Does Consciousness Exist?" J OF PHILOSOPHY, PSYCHOLOGY, AND SCIENTIFIC METHODS 1:477-91.

James 1904b = William James : "A World of Pure Experience." J OF PHILOSOPHY, PSYCHOLOGY, AND SCIENTIFIC METHODS 1:533-43.

Taylor 1994 = Eugene Taylor : Radical Empiricism and the Conduct of Research. Sausalito (CA) : Institute of Noetic Sciences.

Laughlin & Throop 2009 = Charles D. Laughlin & C. Jason Throop : "Husserlian Meditations and Anthropological Reflections". ANTHROPOLOGY OF CONSCIOUSNESS 20.2:130-70.

"ATh-P" = "Analysis of Thought-Processes". (chapter in :- Peter della Santina : The Abhidharma.)

p. 113 William James's artificial epistemological dualism

"Both the knower and the known, subject and object, perceiver and perceived are founded upon pure experience (James [1912]:4-5)."

{Not in the same way, how-be-it. The known, the object, and the perceived are directly experienced; whereas the knower, the subject, and the perceiver are not directly experienced; but are (if at all) merely hypothetically conjectured to subsist.}

{In Bauddha dars`ana ('Buddhist philosophy'), the hypothetical conjecture of any subsistence of an atman ('self') is deconstructed, discarded, and disposed of; and along with dispensing with the supposition of any atman, all corollaries (such as, subsistences of any knower, any subject, or any perceiver) derived from his supposition are likewise dismantled and eliminated. That which is substituted to supplant such a supposition is the universal combination of prajn~a ('wisdom [scil., in understanding the need to benefit others]') and upaya ('the means of [scil., actually benefitting others]') : whereof the benefit to be conveyed to others is understood to be convincing others of the non-existence of any self, any knower, any subject, or any perceiver.}

pp. 114-5 momentaneousness {a doctrine expounded in the Abhidharma}

p. 114

"Now, let us ... examine ... the moment-by-moment flow of the sensorium ... in a continuous iteration of "now moments," or pulses of sensation (Dainton, 2006:Chap. 5; Damasio, 1999:126; Wallace, 2007:137).

I will call these pulses experiential epochs (Laughlin and Throop 2008)."

{According to the Abhidharma, "there are sixteen or seventeen moments of a mental object" ("APh", p. 201).}

Only a skilled contemplative who is able to slow, center and clear their {his or her} mind ...

p. 115

can discern each epoch as it flickers in awareness. ...

The experiential epoch is the fundamental, molecular unit of temporal processing of sensory information (e.g., Koch, 2004:256) ... . ... All other processes are cognitive acts that are layered over experiential epochs."

Dainton 2006 = Barry Dainton : Stream of Consciousness : Unity and Continuity in Conscious Experience. revised edn. London : Routledge.

Damasio 1999 = Antonio Damasio : The Feeling of What Happens : ... the Making of Consciousness. NY : Harcourt.

Wallace 2007 = B. Alan Wallace : Contemplative Science. NY : Columbia Univ Pr.

Laughlin & Throop 2008 = Charles D. Laughlin & C. Jason Throop : "Continuity, Causation and Cyclicity : ... Time-Consciousness". TIME & MIND 1.2:159-86.

"APh" = 15. Jan Westerhoff : "Abhidharma Philosophy". In :- Jay L. Garfield & William Edelglass (edd.) : The Oxford Handbook of World Philosophy. Oxford Univ Pr, 2011. pp. 193-204.

Koch 2004 = Christof Koch : The Quest for Consciousness. Englewood (CO) : Roberts.

{The "seventeen moments of consciousness" are expounded in ACMS&M.} {Expoundment of the doctrine of momentaneity/momentaneousness/momentariness is shewn in the Abhidharma to be one logical way of dissolving the illusion of the existence of an ongoing atman ('self').}

ACMS&M = Brian L. Lancaster : Approaches to Consciousness : the Marriage of Science and Mysticism. Palgrave Macmillan (imprint of St Martin's Pr), Basingstoke (Hants), 2004.

p. 115 dream-imagery : derived from the material plane{; or else, constructed of subtle substance peculiar to immaterial planes-of-existence?}

"Dream imagery is stimuated primarily from within the body". {The author (Ch.D.L.) would here intend the material body : but ought not more to be stimulated from within the dream-body?}

{The stimuli would naturally arise largely from the plane-of-existence wherein the dream is located; and would be entirely constituted of subtle sustance of the nature of ectoplasm.}

p. 116 "quantum dreaming"

"some of the more extraordinary types of dreaming ... including precognitive dreams, co-dreaming and telepathic dreaming, ... might well be the products of quantum dreaming -- that is, dreaming caused by quantum memory, quantum computation and quantum communication (Nunez 2010)."

{In such a scenario, it might be implied that dream-deities function as intermediaries between the praecise quantum-universe (wherein, especially under cryogenic circumstances, quanta can readily communicate with consciousnesses) and the statistically deducible universe of conventional physics including thermodynamics (wherein, especially under superheated circumstances, such communication is notably exceptional).}

Nunez 2010 = Paul L. Nunez : Brain, Mind, and the Structure of Reality. Oxford Univ Pr.

p. 116 in what mode, "there is no spatial distance or time"

"Atomic physicist David Bohm (1917-1972 {wrong! : read "1992" instead of "1972"}) ... argued that reality has two orders, the "explicate order" of matter and space and time, and an "implicate order" of energy

in which everything is entangled (everything is "implicated" in everything else) and there is no spatial distance or time (Bohm 1980 ...)."

{Is may be asserted that "there is no spatial distance or time": not, however, in any conventional meaning or sense, but simply in the figurative mode that : because all past and future events are already potentially praesent in the "implicate" mode, therefore all events could be described as invariable and as retained in accord with appropriately praesumable conservation-principles. [written 9 Oct 2017]}

Bohm 1980 = David Bohm : Wholeness and the Implicate Order. Routledge & Kegan Paul.

{Aristoteles made the same mode of distinction, designating "implicate" as "potential" and "explicate" as "actual". Bohm's improvement on Aristoteles was to separate them by the distinction between energy and matter (where an implicate order of energy could basically be the virtual photon), and to make use of "entanglement" as the fundamental nature of energy. "Entanglement", however, apparently cannot occur in energy in isolation from matter, but only in energy in interactive connection with matter (e.g. "once electrons were in a plasma", "DBIO&H") : furthermore, because all matter is characterized by mass, and because all mass is always associated with gravitation, therefore gravitation must somehow be responsible for all "entanglement". Somewhere in this imputation of ongoing responsibility, the ongoing source of consciousness may possibly reside, probably in activity by virtual gravitons (whose praecise activity is so very uncertainly understood that "different formalisms have been used to describe virtual graviton effects", "M-RED", p. 1151a). If "The gravitational field is mediated by the exchange of virtual gravitons" (AF:"G", p. 26), however, "the imaginary mass, is the rest mass of the gravitons" (AF:"G", p. 30); and imaginary mass ought to be associated with mental imagination, so that in this scheme ordinary gravitons may affect the mind. Likewise, in order to keep pace with the mind, "gravitons" move "faster than the speed of light" (AF:"G", p. 29).

Now, in Bohm's "holographic analogy" ("DBIO&H") for the "the Implicate Order", the photographic hologram is entirely constituted of matter, without that matter's energy-content being at all relevant; whereas the Explicate Order is constituted of discernable effects (visual, which must be produced by photons) -- thus it can be seen that in the author (Ch.D.L.)'s summary, the applications are praecisely reversed : the contrast ought, instead, to be between the "explicate order" of energy (photons), and an "implicate order" of matter (holographic film). It is hardly necessary to follow the author (Ch.D.L.) any further after such a gross blunder of his; which blunder would appear likely to be due to his not distinguishing virtual photons from real photons. [written 9 Oct 2017]}

"DBIO&H" = "David Bohm, Implicate Order and Holomovement".

"M-RED" = Greg Landsberg : "Mini-Review on Extra Dimensions". In :- C. S. Lim & Taku Yamanaka (edd.) : PROCEEDINGS OF THE 30TH INTERNAT CONF ON HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS, OSAKA 2000. World Scientific Publ Co, Singapore, 2001. pp. 1150-3.

AF:"G" = Adrian Ferent : "Gravitation". RESEARCH & REVIEWS -- J OF PURE & APPLIED PHYSICS, 2015.

p. 117 biophotons

"German biophysicist has found that living cells spontaneously emit weak biophotons in the visual to ultraviolet range and ... cells ... are literally bathed in electromagnetic fieds by means of which the cells communicate their states, and coordinate their activities with each other (e.g., Popp, Gu and Li 1994; Chang, Fisch and Popp 2010)."

Popp, Gu, & Li 1994 = Fritz-Albert Popp; Q. Gu; & K. H. Li : "Biophoton Emission". MODERN PHYSICS LETTERS B8:1269-96.

Chang, Fisch, & Popp 2010 = Jiin-Ju Chang; Joachim Fisch; & Fritz-Albert Popp (edd.) : Biophotons. NY : Springer.

pp. 117-8 effect of the "quantum sea" on mental events

p. 117

"An interest had existed for many years in the possible relationship between the brain and the quantum sea (e.g., Bohm 1990; Beck and Eccles 1992; Deutsch 1985; Lockwood 1989; Penrose 1989; Stapp

{In the material universe, the "quantum sea" (because any employment of its energy must immediately induce "negative energy" indebtedness cancelling the energy's effect) cannot produce any enduring result. It might, however, be capable of influencing the mind through activities in non-energy-dependent immaterial subtle planes-of-existence.}

p. 118

... 2007; Jibu and Yasue ... 2004."

Bohm 1990 = David Bohm : "A New Theory of the Relationship of Mind and Matter". PHILOSOPHICAL PSYCHOLOGY 3.2-3:271.

Beck & Eccles 1992 = Friedrich Beck & John C. Eccles : "Quantum Aspects of ... the Role of Consciousness". PROC NATL ACAD SCI, USA 89:11357-61.

Deutsch 1985 = D. Deutsch : "Quantum Theory ... and the Universal Quantum Computer". PROC OF THE ROYAL SOC OF LONDON A 400:97-117.

Lockwood 1989 = Michael Lockwood : Mind, Brain and the Quantum. Oxford : Basil Blackwell.

Penrose 1989 = Roger Penrose : The Emperor's New Mind. Oxford Univ Pr.

Stapp 2007 = Henry P. Stapp : "Quantum Approaches to Consciousness". In :- D. P. Zelazo; M. Moscovitch; & E. Thompson (edd.) : Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge Univ Pr. pp. 881-908.

Jibu & Yasue 2004 = Mari Jibu & Kunio Yasue : "Quantum Brain Dynamics and Quantum Field Theory". In :- Gordon G. Globus; Karl H. Pribram; & Giuseppe Vitiello : Brain and Being. Amsterdam : Benjamins. pp. 255-90.

p. 118 biotic quantum-activities : quantum-tunneling at the neuron-synapse; quantum-entanglement in the optic retina

"Evan Harris Walker (1977; 2000:217-218) has suggested that the phenomenon known at "tunneling" may occur at the synapse, an idea taken up in more detail in Beck (1994) and in Beck and Eccles (1992). ...

Also, ... the possible role of quantum entanglement in the navigation of birds using weak magnetic fields (see Ritz et al. 2009; Cai, Guerresch [and] Briegel 2010). This phenomenon would involve entangled particles in certain chemicals in the cells of the bird's retinae."

Walker 1977 = Evan Harris Walker : "Quantum Mechanical Tunnelling in Synaptic and Ephaptic Transmission". INTERNAT J OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY 11:103-27.

Walker 2000 = Evan Harris Walker : The Physics of Consciousness : Quantum Minds and the Meaning of Life. NY : Basic Bks.

Beck 1994 = Friedrich Beck : "Quantum Mechanics and Consciousness". J OF CONSCIOUSNESS STUDIES 1.2:253-5.

Beck & Eccles 1992 = Friedrich Beck & John C. Eccles : "Quantum Aspects of Brain Activity and the Role of Consciousness". PROC NATL ACAD SCI, USA. 89:11357-61.

Ritz et al. 2009 = Th. Ritz; R. Wiltschko; P. J. Hore; Ch. T. Rodgers; K. Stapput; P. Thalau; Ch. R. Timmel; & W. Wiltschko : "Magnetic Compass of Birds Is Based on a Molecule with Optimal Directional Sensitivity". BIOPHYSICAL J 96.8:3451-7.

Cai, Guerresch, & Briegel 2010 = Jianming Cai; Gian Giacomo Guerresch; & Hans J. Briegel : "Quantum Control and Entanglement in a Chemical Compass". PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 104.22:id.220502.

p. 119 super-radiance in microtubules of cell-protein

"biophysical mechanism of direct consciousness-quantum sea interpenetration is to be found in the coherent proterties of microtubules (Hameroff 1994, 1998; Jibu et al. 1994; Mershin, Nanopoulos and Skoularis 1999). Microtubules form a protein latticework of cylindrical pathways in the cell that are known to be involved in regulating and and organizing the activity of the cell, transporting neurochemicals to the synapse, etc. ... Jibu et al. (1994) have suggested that the ordered water molecules within the hollow core of these microtubules may manifest a property of "super-radiance" and ... transform incoherent electromagnetic energy into coherent, non-linear photon pulses within the tubule. The pulse would also be a kind of "soliton wave" in that it might propagate without much energy loss and with little energy requirement."

Hameroff 1994 = Stuart R. Hameroff : "Quantum Coherence in Microtubules : a Neural Basis for ... Consciousness?" J OF CONSCIOUSNESS STUDIES 1.1:91-118.

Hameroff 1998 = Stuart R. Hameroff : "Quantum Computation in Brain Microtubules? The Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' Model of Consciousness". PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOC OF LONDON A 356(1743):1869-96.

Jibu et al. 1994 = Mari Jibu; Scott Hagan; Stuart R. Hameroff; Karl H. Pribham; & Kunio Yasue : "Quantum Optical Coherence in Cytoskeletal Microtubules : Implications for Brain Function". BIOSYSTEMS 32:95-209.

Mershin, Nanopoulos, & Skoulakis 1999 = A. Mershin, D. V. Nanopoulos, & E. M. C. Skoulakis : "Quantum Brain?" PROC OF THE ACADEMY OF ATHENS 74A:1-37.

pp. 120-1 neural quantum-computation facilitating praecognition & co-dreaming

p. 120

"brain-quantum sea interpenetration may operate something like a "quantum computer" (Hameroff 1998; Deutsch 1985; Wallace 1993a, 1993b). ... The "computations" ... used in higher order processing -- may indeed facilitate insight ... as well as ... precognition and co-dreaming. ... it does seem on the strength of parapsychological and ethnographic

p. 121

evidence that information exchange of a broader kind may be occurring between the conscious brain and the quantum sea, and between brains via the sea (see Radin 1997; Puthoff, Targ and May 1981; Walker 1970, 1973, 1975 who relate quantum physical and parapsychological phenomena). ... The role of dreaming may turn out to involve adjustments ... to information gleaned from the sea, and thus ... in ... neural transduction. In other words, some dreams ... might involve "spooky" phenomena like remote viewing, precognition and so on."

Wallace 1993a = Ron Wallace : "Cognitive Mapping and Algorithmic Complexity : ... Quantum Processes in the Evolution of Human Consciousness?" BEHAVIORAL & BRAIN SCIENCES 16:614-5.

Wallace 1993b = Ron Wallace : "The Algorithmic Animal : Complexity, Quantum Mechanics, and the Evolution of Consciousness". SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE BULLETIN 6.2:25-6.

Radin 1997a = Dean I. Radin : The Conscious Universe : the Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena. NY : Harper.

Puthoff, Targ, & May 1981= Harold E. Puthoff; Russell Targ; & Edwin C. May : "Experimental Psi Research : Implication for Physics". In :- Robert G. Jahn (ed.) : The Role of Consciousness in the Physical World. Washington (DC) : Amer Assn for the Advancement of Science. pp. 37-86.

Walker 1970 = Evan Harris Walker : "The Nature of Consciousness". MATHEMATICAL BIOSCIENCES 7:131-78.

Walker 1973 = Evan Harris Walker : "Application of the Quantum Theory of Consciousness to the Problem of Psi Phenomena". In :- W. G. Roll; R. L. Morris; J. D. Morris (edd.) : Research in Parapsychology. Metuchen (NJ) : Scarecrow Pr. pp. 51-3.

Walker 1975 = Evan Harris Walker : "Foundations of Paraphysical and Parapsychological Phenomena". In :- Laura Oteri (editrix) : Quantum Physics and Parapsychology. NY : Parapschology Foundation. pp. 1-53.

p. 122 the inhaerent playfulness of dreaming

"Parman suggests that, "... play is analogous, if not homologous, to dreaming

{The usual behaviour-governing attitude dominant during dreaming is identical with that governing play-acting during the waking-state (based an awareness that no harm to anyone can arise from its events), viz., a resolute attitude not to become bewildered, nor frightened, nor dismayed, however erratic the circumstances may become.}

because it arises from the ... need for the disruption of synchrony, provided internally during sleep, is met during waking by ... forms of play" ([1979]:23-24)."

{Not so -- no "disruption of synchrony" is produced by the dreaming, but instead a beautiful synchronicity! Instead of any "disruption", the dreaming-universe is able to re-arrange the relatively meagre and tawdry logical concatennation of events in the waking-world into an exquisitely grandiose scheme, providing delightful meaning and purpose to contexts of events which in the waking-world seeming so dull and shallow that life being lived in the waking-world seemed not really worthwhile continuing withal. This is, in the dream-context, reconstructed in a ideal structure so purposeful and meaningful as, for the nonce, to make the dreamer eager to return to waking life so as to be able to experience more trite events which the dream-world can be expected to transform, once again, into its own renditions of gloriously meaningful splendor. [written 16 Oct 2017]}

Parman 1979 = Susan Parman : "An Evolutionary Theory of Dreaming and Play". In :- Edward Norbeck & Claire R. Farrer (edd.) : Forms of Play in Native North American Indians. West Publ Co. pp. 17-34.

{If it were not for mighty revelations gloriously displayed during dreaming, life would never at all seem meaningful nor purposeful. It is on account of the exalted reality of the dream-universe that we come to know the true meaning and purpose of existence, by arriving at witnessing, during dreams, the exquisiteness of the sychronicities of events which in meagre waking-life seemed utterly disconnected and meaningless. It is on account of the disclosures of ultimate reality in dreaming that we achieve synthesis of synchrony, a synchronywhich had been so disappointingly lacking in ordinary waking-life with its chaotic mass of disruptive non-sequiturs. [written 16 Oct 2017]}

p. 122 sensing waking-world dangers during dreaming

"And as we know that environment stimuli can and do penetrate into the awareness of animals, as they do humans, dreams will allow the most sensitive member of a herd to perceive and emotionally respond to dreamed dangers, reacting to them and waking the rest of the herd in the process (Rivers 1923:183)."

{Human dreamers can (with the usual assistance from spirit-guides) likewise, during dreaming, become aware of waking-world dangers (and also opportunities), and can inform others thereof after awaking. The sort of human dreamers able to perform this are shamans, psychics/pneumatics, etc.}

Rivers 1923 = W. H. R. Rivers : Conflict and Dream. NY : Harcourt Brace.

p. 123 the "transcendental" nature of the ordinary material world

"Anything in the real {read, instead, "material" : for, immaterial subtle worlds are aequally (alternatively) "real"} modeled by the brain {superfluous : the modeling can be performed in the immaterial subtle planes-of-existence by consciousness alone, perhaps without necessarily involving any "brain"} is always transcendental relative to the mental model ... ."

{The standard meaning of \transcendental\ is 'occupying an immaterial, subtle plane-of-existence (such as, the astral plane, mental plane, and causal plane)', and the term is more usually applied to souls, spirits, ectoplasm, and that ilk. The term, however, is also applicable to the material universe whenever the material universe is treated as an intrinsic composite of those subtle planes, indistinguishably interblended.}

{A perhaps more pertinent potential project might be to discover whether, and/or how, the processes of consciousness can be modeled in any feasible theoretical model of the brain. Is this possibility not likewise usually accounted as "transcendental" simply because there is no known means of approaching it -- but if unapproachable, could it not be accounted as "supra-transcendental"? But, then, are not all modes of modeling any feature of "reality", by any even-at-all conjecturable means, all aequally (if not aequivalently) "transcendental"?}

p. 124 what "constraints" according to which "neurobiology"?

"when it comes to anthropologists, authors may write whole books about mental models {when by anthropologists, models of social customs, of language, and of religion} without any reference to ... the constraints that neurobiology imposes on the nature of mental models."

{Now, there must by nature be numerous distinct-and-different "neurobiologies", differing from one another in plane-and-subplane-of-existence, in whether multiple planes and/or subplanes are involved, etc. etc. These would naturally vastly differ as to constraints they might impose, and under what circumstances such constraints might be imposed and/or lifted.}

{Until it is more definitely, and in greater detail, understood just praecisely how consciousness (of various varieties -- such as, the consciousness involved in remote-viewing or in astral-projection) is connected with "the brain", it cannot actually be determined whether or not any-at-all "constraints" of any sort whatsoever are imposed by so-called "neurobiology" on "mental models" (or on anything else, for that matter).}

p. 126 the character of dreaming by infants

"fetuses in the womb and infants ... exhibit R[apid]E[ye]M[ovement] activity galore during sleep. Why? Well, they ... dream because they have ... to dream ... . My answer ... is that babies dream "archetypal" dreams ... fully functioning ... at and before birth (Rakic 1995; Gazzaniga 1998:2) and ... during sleep ... express themselves drem imagery ... . They have a rich internal ... dream world ... . Babies have an internal world full of faces and hands, nascent landscapes, geometrical figures and other archetypal motifs ... . I would wager that a fetus's dream life is more rich and interesting than its waking life ... ."

Rakic 1995 = P. A. Rakic : "A Hypothesis of Neocortical Expansion During Evolution". TRENDS IN NEUROSCIENCE 18:383-8.

Gazzaniga 1998 = Michael S. Gazzaniga : The Mind's Past. Univ of CA Pr, Berkeley.

pp. 126-7 varied functions of dreaming

p. 126

"the functions of dreaming are manifold ... . Dreaming ... may be stimulating or rehearsing waking experiences (Donald 1995), may be working to solve problems and seek information, may be consolidating

p. 127

memories (Stickgold and Wamsley 2011), may be expressing links between emotions and images (Hartmann 2011) ..., and so forth.

Dreams are ... of whatever the cognitive/emotional/imaginal parts ... are on-about at the moment. Dream imagery may be a synesthetic experience of activities going on unconsciously elsewhere in the nervous system and body (see Hunt 1989 ...; Ramachandran 2004:Chap. 4)."

Donald 1995 = Merlin Donald : "The Neurobiology of Human Consciousness". NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA 33.9:1087-102.

Stickgold & Wamsley 2011 = Robert Stickgold & Erin J. Wamsley : "Why We Dream". In :- M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (edd.) : Principles and Practices of Sleep Medicine. 4th edn. Philadelphia : Elsevier. pp. 628-37.

Hartmann 2011 = Ernest Hartmann : The Nature and Functions of Dreaming. Oxford Univ Pr.

Hunt 1989 = Harry T. Hunt : Multiplicity of Dreams. New Haven (CT) : Yale Univ Pr.

Ramachandran 2004 = V. S. Ramachandran : A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness. Honolulu : Pi Pr.

p. 127 multiple meanings of dreams

"Dream symbols may be, like those in myths and fairy tales, "pregnant with meaning" (Cassirer 1957:202; see also ... Kunzendorf 2007; Hall 1953). Images and other elements making up the manifest content of dreams are often polysemic -- They have multiple meanings associated with them ... . ... As Ernest Hartmann (2011) notes, the amount of "condensation" found in polysemic dream symbols may be greater than {that for} symbols in the waking state."

Cassirer 1957 = Ernst Cassirer : The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. Vol. 3 : The Phenomenology of Knowledge. New Haven (CT) : Yale Univ Pr.

Kunzendorf 2007 = Robert G. Kunzendorf : "'Symbolic' Images in Dreams and Daydreams". In Deirdre Barrett & Patrick McNamara (edd.) : Cultural and Theoretical Perspectives, Vol. 3 of : The New Science of Dreaming. Westport (CT) : Praeger. pp. 155-70.

Hall 1953 = Calvin S. Hall : The Meaning of Dreams. NY : Harper.

p. 128 helical staircase in author (Ch.D.L.)'s dreams

"In my dreams black people (usually strange females) almost always signal a message ... . They are often walking up a spiral {the author evidently intending "helical"} staircase from below and are walking or standing to my left ... ."

{Helical staircases are relatively uncommon, usually located in a museum or in an ornate mansion. In order to be so much impressed with such staircases, apparently the author passed much waking time in such localities; in the private mansions he may have noticed many darkling (darkie) servants.}

{At a profounder level, the helical staircase in the dream of the author's (Ch.D.L.) may have had reference to helical DMT; and the darkness of persons' bodies to the darksome spiritual mysteries connected with material-world genetics.}

p. 129 tribal dream-symbolism & tribal dream-interpretation

"In dreamwork, the ... library of eidetic images becomes a shared language for ... the ... diffeent S[tates]O[f]C[onscousness]. It is by means of this library of shared knowing that integration ... becomes possible. Achieving this intra-psychic integration is frequently de rigueur in polyphasic cultures; e.g.

Dorothy Eggan (1966) on Hopi dreaming and ... religious symbolism, and

Chidester (2003) on dream interpretation in Zulu religion."

Eggan 1966 = Dorothy Eggan : "Hopi Dreams in Cult\ural Perspective". In :- G. E. von Grunebaum & R. Caillois (edd.) : The Dream and Human Societies. Berkeley : Univ of CA Pr.

Chidester 2003 [No such publication cited on p. 514 nor among his "Selected Publications" (] Perhaps intended is Chidester 2008b = "Zulu Dreamscapes : ... Authentication in Contemporary Neo-Shamanism". MATERIAL RELIGION 4.2:136-5.

p. 130 necessity for sleep & for dreaming

"if deprived of sleep, animals, including humans, face serious and even dire consequences."

"dreaming has a number of functions, including the expression of consciousness ..., intra-psychic communication, problem-solving and creative intuition, ... the consolidation of memories ... .

... dreams may be influenced by ... events distant in spacetime".


Charles D. Laughlin : Communing With the Gods : Consciousness, Culture, and the Dreaming ... . Daily Grail Publ, Brisbane, 2011.